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Croup
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Acute laryngotracheitis
          • Definitions

            • Croup: Self-limited viral inflammation of subglottic trachea causing stridor & characteristic cough
            • Acute laryngotracheobronchitis: Croup plus lower airway involvement
            • Spasmodic croup: Recurrent episodes, typically without viral prodrome or fever
            • Atypical croup: Recurrent episodes or croup outside expected age range

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                Selected References

                                1. Darras KE et al: Imaging acute airway obstruction in infants and children. Radiographics. 35(7):2064-79, 2015
                                2. Delany DR et al: Role of direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy in recurrent croup. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(1):159-64, 2015
                                3. Duval M et al: Role of operative airway evaluation in children with recurrent croup: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Otolaryngol. 40(3):227-33, 2015
                                4. Hodnett BL et al: Objective endoscopic findings in patients with recurrent croup: 10-year retrospective analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 79(12):2343-7, 2015
                                5. Johnson DW: Croup. BMJ Clin Evid. 2014
                                6. Petrocheilou A et al: Viral croup: diagnosis and a treatment algorithm. Pediatr Pulmonol. 49(5):421-9, 2014
                                7. Elbuluk O et al: Laryngomalacia presenting as recurrent croup in an infant. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2013:649203, 2013
                                8. Ibrahimov M et al: Laryngeal foreign body mimicking croup. J Craniofac Surg. 24(1):e7-8, 2013
                                9. Choi J et al: Common pediatric respiratory emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 30(2):529-63, x, 2012
                                10. Huang CC et al: Images in clinical medicine. Steeple sign of croup. N Engl J Med. 367(1):66, 2012
                                11. Virk JS et al: Analysing lateral soft tissue neck radiographs. Emerg Radiol. 19(3):255-60, 2012
                                12. Tibballs J et al: Symptoms and signs differentiating croup and epiglottitis. J Paediatr Child Health. 47(3):77-82, 2011
                                13. Zoorob R et al: Croup: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 83(9):1067-73, 2011
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Acute laryngotracheitis
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Croup: Self-limited viral inflammation of subglottic trachea causing stridor & characteristic cough
                                          • Acute laryngotracheobronchitis: Croup plus lower airway involvement
                                          • Spasmodic croup: Recurrent episodes, typically without viral prodrome or fever
                                          • Atypical croup: Recurrent episodes or croup outside expected age range

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Presentation

                                                      • Demographics

                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Darras KE et al: Imaging acute airway obstruction in infants and children. Radiographics. 35(7):2064-79, 2015
                                                              2. Delany DR et al: Role of direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy in recurrent croup. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(1):159-64, 2015
                                                              3. Duval M et al: Role of operative airway evaluation in children with recurrent croup: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Otolaryngol. 40(3):227-33, 2015
                                                              4. Hodnett BL et al: Objective endoscopic findings in patients with recurrent croup: 10-year retrospective analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 79(12):2343-7, 2015
                                                              5. Johnson DW: Croup. BMJ Clin Evid. 2014
                                                              6. Petrocheilou A et al: Viral croup: diagnosis and a treatment algorithm. Pediatr Pulmonol. 49(5):421-9, 2014
                                                              7. Elbuluk O et al: Laryngomalacia presenting as recurrent croup in an infant. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2013:649203, 2013
                                                              8. Ibrahimov M et al: Laryngeal foreign body mimicking croup. J Craniofac Surg. 24(1):e7-8, 2013
                                                              9. Choi J et al: Common pediatric respiratory emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 30(2):529-63, x, 2012
                                                              10. Huang CC et al: Images in clinical medicine. Steeple sign of croup. N Engl J Med. 367(1):66, 2012
                                                              11. Virk JS et al: Analysing lateral soft tissue neck radiographs. Emerg Radiol. 19(3):255-60, 2012
                                                              12. Tibballs J et al: Symptoms and signs differentiating croup and epiglottitis. J Paediatr Child Health. 47(3):77-82, 2011
                                                              13. Zoorob R et al: Croup: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 83(9):1067-73, 2011