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Cryptococcosis
Yoshimi Anzai, MD, MPH
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Crypto
          • Definitions

            • Cryptococcus neoformans infection
            • Opportunistic fungal infection that typically affects HIV and other immunocompromised patients
            • Pulmonary infection with subsequent transfer of circulating Cryptococci into subarachnoid spaces, perivascular spaces = leptomeningitis

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Gottumukkala RV et al: Imaging of the brain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):275-91, 2014
                                  2. Starkey J et al: MRI of CNS fungal infections: review of aspergillosis to histoplasmosis and everything in between. Clin Neuroradiol. 24(3):217-30, 2014
                                  3. Corti M et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in AIDS patients with central nervous system cryptococcosis. Rev Iberoam Micol. 25(4):211-4, 2008
                                  4. Thurnher MM et al: Neuroimaging in the brain in HIV-1-infected patients. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(1):93-117; viii, 2008
                                  5. Bretaudeau K et al: [Cryptococcal meningo-encephalitis in an apparently immunocompetent patient.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 162(2):233-7, 2006
                                  6. Saigal G et al: Unusual presentation of central nervous system cryptococcal infection in an immunocompetent patient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(10):2522-6, 2005
                                  7. Berkefeld J et al: Cryptococcus meningoencephalitis in AIDS: parenchymal and meningeal forms. Neuroradiology. 41(2):129-33, 1999
                                  8. Miszkiel KA et al: The spectrum of MRI findings in CNS cryptococcosis in AIDS. Clin Radiol. 51(12):842-50, 1996
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Crypto
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Cryptococcus neoformans infection
                                            • Opportunistic fungal infection that typically affects HIV and other immunocompromised patients
                                            • Pulmonary infection with subsequent transfer of circulating Cryptococci into subarachnoid spaces, perivascular spaces = leptomeningitis

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Consider

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Gottumukkala RV et al: Imaging of the brain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):275-91, 2014
                                                                  2. Starkey J et al: MRI of CNS fungal infections: review of aspergillosis to histoplasmosis and everything in between. Clin Neuroradiol. 24(3):217-30, 2014
                                                                  3. Corti M et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in AIDS patients with central nervous system cryptococcosis. Rev Iberoam Micol. 25(4):211-4, 2008
                                                                  4. Thurnher MM et al: Neuroimaging in the brain in HIV-1-infected patients. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(1):93-117; viii, 2008
                                                                  5. Bretaudeau K et al: [Cryptococcal meningo-encephalitis in an apparently immunocompetent patient.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 162(2):233-7, 2006
                                                                  6. Saigal G et al: Unusual presentation of central nervous system cryptococcal infection in an immunocompetent patient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(10):2522-6, 2005
                                                                  7. Berkefeld J et al: Cryptococcus meningoencephalitis in AIDS: parenchymal and meningeal forms. Neuroradiology. 41(2):129-33, 1999
                                                                  8. Miszkiel KA et al: The spectrum of MRI findings in CNS cryptococcosis in AIDS. Clin Radiol. 51(12):842-50, 1996