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Cryptorchidism
Paula J. Woodward, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Cryptorchism, undescended testis
          • Definitions

            • Incomplete descent of testis into scrotum

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Kolon TF et al: Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: AUA guideline. J Urol. 192(2):337-45, 2014
                                        2. Tasian GE et al: Age at orchiopexy and testis palpability predict germ and Leydig cell loss: clinical predictors of adverse histological features of cryptorchidism. J Urol. 182(2):704-9, 2009
                                        3. Wood HM et al: Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: separating fact from fiction. J Urol. 181(2):452-61, 2009
                                        4. Barthold JS: Undescended testis: current theories of etiology. Curr Opin Urol. 18(4):395-400, 2008
                                        5. Ritzén EM: Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol. 159 Suppl 1:S87-90, 2008
                                        6. John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science: Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism 2007
                                        7. Aso C et al: Gray-scale and color Doppler sonography of scrotal disorders in children: an update. Radiographics. 25(5):1197-214, 2005
                                        8. Muglia V et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scrotal diseases: when it makes the difference. Urology. 59(3):419-23, 2002
                                        9. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002
                                        10. Shadbolt CL et al: Imaging of groin masses: inguinal anatomy and pathologic conditions revisited. Radiographics. 21 Spec No:S261-71, 2001
                                        11. Nguyen HT et al: Cryptorchidism: strategies in detection. Eur Radiol. 9(2):336-43, 1999
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Cryptorchism, undescended testis
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Incomplete descent of testis into scrotum

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Kolon TF et al: Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: AUA guideline. J Urol. 192(2):337-45, 2014
                                                                              2. Tasian GE et al: Age at orchiopexy and testis palpability predict germ and Leydig cell loss: clinical predictors of adverse histological features of cryptorchidism. J Urol. 182(2):704-9, 2009
                                                                              3. Wood HM et al: Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: separating fact from fiction. J Urol. 181(2):452-61, 2009
                                                                              4. Barthold JS: Undescended testis: current theories of etiology. Curr Opin Urol. 18(4):395-400, 2008
                                                                              5. Ritzén EM: Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol. 159 Suppl 1:S87-90, 2008
                                                                              6. John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science: Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism 2007
                                                                              7. Aso C et al: Gray-scale and color Doppler sonography of scrotal disorders in children: an update. Radiographics. 25(5):1197-214, 2005
                                                                              8. Muglia V et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scrotal diseases: when it makes the difference. Urology. 59(3):419-23, 2002
                                                                              9. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002
                                                                              10. Shadbolt CL et al: Imaging of groin masses: inguinal anatomy and pathologic conditions revisited. Radiographics. 21 Spec No:S261-71, 2001
                                                                              11. Nguyen HT et al: Cryptorchidism: strategies in detection. Eur Radiol. 9(2):336-43, 1999