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Cutaneous Melanoma
Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD; Nayela Keen, MD; Christine M. Glastonbury, MBBS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Cutaneous malignancy arising from melanocytes
                • Originates in neural crest
                • Widely distributed in skin

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Image-Guided Biopsy

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Pozsgai M et al: The significance of imaging examinations during follow-up for malignant melanoma. Eur J Dermatol. 31(3):357-63, 2021
                                                  2. Bleicher J et al: Recurrence patterns in patients with stage II melanoma: the evolving role of routine imaging for surveillance. J Surg Oncol. 122(8):1770-7, 2020
                                                  3. Hafström A et al: Patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma, particularly elderly with more advanced primary tumors, seem to benefit from initial CT staging before considering a sentinel lymph node biopsy. Acta Otolaryngol. 140(9):795-802, 2020
                                                  4. Kawaguchi M et al: MR imaging findings for differentiating cutaneous malignant melanoma from squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Radiol. 132:109212, 2020
                                                  5. Janz TA et al: Is imaging of the brain necessary at diagnosis for cutaneous head and neck melanomas? Am J Otolaryngol. 39(5):631-5, 2018
                                                  6. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                  7. de Rosa N et al: Sentinel node biopsy for head and neck melanoma: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 145(3):375-82, 2011
                                                  8. Jaber JJ et al: Evolving treatment strategies in thin cutaneous head and neck melanoma: 1 institution's experience. Head Neck. 33(1):7-12, 2011
                                                  9. Klop WM et al: Assessment of lymphatic drainage patterns and implications for the extent of neck dissection in head and neck melanoma patients. J Surg Oncol. 103(8):756-60, 2011
                                                  10. Komisarovas L et al: Retrospective study on the cutaneous head and neck melanoma in Dorset (UK). Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 49(5):359-63, 2011
                                                  11. Patnana M et al: Multimethod imaging, staging, and spectrum of manifestations of metastatic melanoma. Clin Radiol. 66(3):224-36, 2011
                                                  12. Tseng WH et al: Tumor location predicts survival in cutaneous head and neck melanoma. J Surg Res. 167(2):192-8, 2011
                                                  13. Vermeeren L et al: SPECT/CT for sentinel lymph node mapping in head and neck melanoma. Head Neck. 33(1):1-6, 2011
                                                  14. Guadagnolo BA et al: Role of postoperative irradiation for patients with bilateral cervical nodal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: a critical assessment. Head Neck. 32(6):708-13, 2010
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Pathology

                                                          • Clinical Issues

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Cutaneous malignancy arising from melanocytes
                                                                • Originates in neural crest
                                                                • Widely distributed in skin

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                            • Consider

                                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Pozsgai M et al: The significance of imaging examinations during follow-up for malignant melanoma. Eur J Dermatol. 31(3):357-63, 2021
                                                                                                  2. Bleicher J et al: Recurrence patterns in patients with stage II melanoma: the evolving role of routine imaging for surveillance. J Surg Oncol. 122(8):1770-7, 2020
                                                                                                  3. Hafström A et al: Patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma, particularly elderly with more advanced primary tumors, seem to benefit from initial CT staging before considering a sentinel lymph node biopsy. Acta Otolaryngol. 140(9):795-802, 2020
                                                                                                  4. Kawaguchi M et al: MR imaging findings for differentiating cutaneous malignant melanoma from squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Radiol. 132:109212, 2020
                                                                                                  5. Janz TA et al: Is imaging of the brain necessary at diagnosis for cutaneous head and neck melanomas? Am J Otolaryngol. 39(5):631-5, 2018
                                                                                                  6. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                                                                  7. de Rosa N et al: Sentinel node biopsy for head and neck melanoma: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 145(3):375-82, 2011
                                                                                                  8. Jaber JJ et al: Evolving treatment strategies in thin cutaneous head and neck melanoma: 1 institution's experience. Head Neck. 33(1):7-12, 2011
                                                                                                  9. Klop WM et al: Assessment of lymphatic drainage patterns and implications for the extent of neck dissection in head and neck melanoma patients. J Surg Oncol. 103(8):756-60, 2011
                                                                                                  10. Komisarovas L et al: Retrospective study on the cutaneous head and neck melanoma in Dorset (UK). Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 49(5):359-63, 2011
                                                                                                  11. Patnana M et al: Multimethod imaging, staging, and spectrum of manifestations of metastatic melanoma. Clin Radiol. 66(3):224-36, 2011
                                                                                                  12. Tseng WH et al: Tumor location predicts survival in cutaneous head and neck melanoma. J Surg Res. 167(2):192-8, 2011
                                                                                                  13. Vermeeren L et al: SPECT/CT for sentinel lymph node mapping in head and neck melanoma. Head Neck. 33(1):1-6, 2011
                                                                                                  14. Guadagnolo BA et al: Role of postoperative irradiation for patients with bilateral cervical nodal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: a critical assessment. Head Neck. 32(6):708-13, 2010