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Cystic Hygroma
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Cystic hygroma (CH)
            • Synonyms

              • Nuchal lymphangioma
              • Cavernous lymphangioma
              • Nuchal cystic hygromata
            • Definitions

              • Dilated lymphatics from venous-lymphatic malformation

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    • Reporting Tips

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Malone LJ et al: Pediatric lymphangiectasia: an imaging spectrum. Pediatr Radiol. 45(4):562-9, 2015
                                      2. Chen M et al: Cystic hygroma detected in the first trimester scan in Hong Kong. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 27(4):342-5, 2014
                                      3. Noia G et al: Fetal cystic hygroma: the importance of natural history. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 170(2):407-13, 2013
                                      4. Scholl J et al: First-trimester cystic hygroma: relationship of nuchal translucency thickness and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 120(3):551-9, 2012
                                      5. Sananes N et al: Nuchal translucency and cystic hygroma colli in screening for fetal major congenital heart defects in a series of 12,910 euploid pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):273-9, 2010
                                      6. Gedikbasi A et al: Multidisciplinary approach in cystic hygroma: prenatal diagnosis, outcome, and postnatal follow up. Pediatr Int. 51(5):670-7, 2009
                                      7. Graesslin O et al: Characteristics and outcome of fetal cystic hygroma diagnosed in the first trimester. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 86(12):1442-6, 2007
                                      8. Howarth ES et al: Population-based study of the outcome following the prenatal diagnosis of cystic hygroma. Prenat Diagn. 25(4):286-91, 2005
                                      9. Ganapathy R et al: Natural history and outcome of prenatally diagnosed cystic hygroma. Prenat Diagn. 24(12):965-8, 2004
                                      10. Reynders CS et al: First trimester isolated fetal nuchal lucency: significance and outcome. J Ultrasound Med. 16(2):101-5, 1997
                                      11. Bronshtein M et al: The difference between septated and nonseptated nuchal cystic hygroma in the early second trimester. Obstet Gynecol. 81(5 ( Pt 1)):683-7, 1993
                                      12. Thomas RL: Prenatal diagnosis of giant cystic hygroma: prognosis, counselling, and management; case presentation and review of the recent literature. Prenat Diagn. 12(11):919-23, 1992
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Cystic hygroma (CH)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Nuchal lymphangioma
                                                  • Cavernous lymphangioma
                                                  • Nuchal cystic hygromata
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Dilated lymphatics from venous-lymphatic malformation

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Malone LJ et al: Pediatric lymphangiectasia: an imaging spectrum. Pediatr Radiol. 45(4):562-9, 2015
                                                                          2. Chen M et al: Cystic hygroma detected in the first trimester scan in Hong Kong. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 27(4):342-5, 2014
                                                                          3. Noia G et al: Fetal cystic hygroma: the importance of natural history. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 170(2):407-13, 2013
                                                                          4. Scholl J et al: First-trimester cystic hygroma: relationship of nuchal translucency thickness and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 120(3):551-9, 2012
                                                                          5. Sananes N et al: Nuchal translucency and cystic hygroma colli in screening for fetal major congenital heart defects in a series of 12,910 euploid pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):273-9, 2010
                                                                          6. Gedikbasi A et al: Multidisciplinary approach in cystic hygroma: prenatal diagnosis, outcome, and postnatal follow up. Pediatr Int. 51(5):670-7, 2009
                                                                          7. Graesslin O et al: Characteristics and outcome of fetal cystic hygroma diagnosed in the first trimester. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 86(12):1442-6, 2007
                                                                          8. Howarth ES et al: Population-based study of the outcome following the prenatal diagnosis of cystic hygroma. Prenat Diagn. 25(4):286-91, 2005
                                                                          9. Ganapathy R et al: Natural history and outcome of prenatally diagnosed cystic hygroma. Prenat Diagn. 24(12):965-8, 2004
                                                                          10. Reynders CS et al: First trimester isolated fetal nuchal lucency: significance and outcome. J Ultrasound Med. 16(2):101-5, 1997
                                                                          11. Bronshtein M et al: The difference between septated and nonseptated nuchal cystic hygroma in the early second trimester. Obstet Gynecol. 81(5 ( Pt 1)):683-7, 1993
                                                                          12. Thomas RL: Prenatal diagnosis of giant cystic hygroma: prognosis, counselling, and management; case presentation and review of the recent literature. Prenat Diagn. 12(11):919-23, 1992