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Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma
Behrang Amini, MD, PhD; B. J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Chondrosarcoma with additional mesenchymal component
        • Definitions

          • High-grade chondrosarcoma with bimorphic histologic appearance consisting of conventional chondrosarcoma component with abrupt transition to high-grade, noncartilaginous sarcoma

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  • Biopsy

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Inwards CY et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. In Fletcher CDM et al: World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. IARC Press. 388-90, 2020
                                      2. Miao R et al: Prognostic factors in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: a retrospective analysis of a large series treated at a single institution. Sarcoma. 2019:9069272, 2019
                                      3. Liu C et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: radiological features, prognostic factors and survival statistics in 23 patients. PLoS One. 12(3):e0173665, 2017
                                      4. Bindiganavile S et al: Long-term outcome of chondrosarcoma: a single institutional experience. Cancer Res Treat. 47(4):897-903, 2015
                                      5. Kawaguchi S et al: Does ifosfamide therapy improve survival of patients with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 472(3):983-9, 2014
                                      6. Douis H et al: The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. II. Chondrosarcoma. Skeletal Radiol. 42(5):611-26, 2013
                                      7. Henderson ER et al: Dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcoma: a review of radiologic characteristics. Sarcoma. 2013:505321, 2013
                                      8. Mavrogenis AF et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma revisited. J Surg Orthop Adv. 20(2):106-11, 2011
                                      9. Bernard SA et al: Improved differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas with standardized measurement of cartilage cap at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 255(3):857-65, 2010
                                      10. Akahane T et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in a solitary osteochondroma with leiomyosarcomatous component: a case report. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 128(9):951-3, 2008
                                      11. Sopta J et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: our clinico-pathological experience and dilemmas in 25 cases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 134(2):147-52, 2008
                                      12. Grimer RJ et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: prognostic factors and outcome from a European group. Eur J Cancer. 43(14):2060-5, 2007
                                      13. Staals EL et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas arising in preexisting osteochondromas. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 89(5):987-93, 2007
                                      14. Staals EL et al: Dedifferentiated central chondrosarcoma. Cancer. 106(12):2682-91, 2006
                                      15. Bruns J et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma--a fatal disease. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 131(6):333-9, 2005
                                      16. Rinas AC et al: Potential sampling error in fine needle aspiration biopsy of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: a report of 4 cases. Acta Cytol. 49(5):554-9, 2005
                                      17. Dickey ID et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: the role of chemotherapy with updated outcomes. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(11):2412-8, 2004
                                      18. Littrell LA et al: Radiographic, CT, and MR imaging features of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas: a retrospective review of 174 de novo cases. Radiographics. 24(5):1397-409, 2004
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Chondrosarcoma with additional mesenchymal component
                                            • Definitions

                                              • High-grade chondrosarcoma with bimorphic histologic appearance consisting of conventional chondrosarcoma component with abrupt transition to high-grade, noncartilaginous sarcoma

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      • Biopsy

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Inwards CY et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. In Fletcher CDM et al: World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. IARC Press. 388-90, 2020
                                                                          2. Miao R et al: Prognostic factors in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: a retrospective analysis of a large series treated at a single institution. Sarcoma. 2019:9069272, 2019
                                                                          3. Liu C et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: radiological features, prognostic factors and survival statistics in 23 patients. PLoS One. 12(3):e0173665, 2017
                                                                          4. Bindiganavile S et al: Long-term outcome of chondrosarcoma: a single institutional experience. Cancer Res Treat. 47(4):897-903, 2015
                                                                          5. Kawaguchi S et al: Does ifosfamide therapy improve survival of patients with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 472(3):983-9, 2014
                                                                          6. Douis H et al: The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. II. Chondrosarcoma. Skeletal Radiol. 42(5):611-26, 2013
                                                                          7. Henderson ER et al: Dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcoma: a review of radiologic characteristics. Sarcoma. 2013:505321, 2013
                                                                          8. Mavrogenis AF et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma revisited. J Surg Orthop Adv. 20(2):106-11, 2011
                                                                          9. Bernard SA et al: Improved differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas with standardized measurement of cartilage cap at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 255(3):857-65, 2010
                                                                          10. Akahane T et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in a solitary osteochondroma with leiomyosarcomatous component: a case report. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 128(9):951-3, 2008
                                                                          11. Sopta J et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: our clinico-pathological experience and dilemmas in 25 cases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 134(2):147-52, 2008
                                                                          12. Grimer RJ et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: prognostic factors and outcome from a European group. Eur J Cancer. 43(14):2060-5, 2007
                                                                          13. Staals EL et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas arising in preexisting osteochondromas. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 89(5):987-93, 2007
                                                                          14. Staals EL et al: Dedifferentiated central chondrosarcoma. Cancer. 106(12):2682-91, 2006
                                                                          15. Bruns J et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma--a fatal disease. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 131(6):333-9, 2005
                                                                          16. Rinas AC et al: Potential sampling error in fine needle aspiration biopsy of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: a report of 4 cases. Acta Cytol. 49(5):554-9, 2005
                                                                          17. Dickey ID et al: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: the role of chemotherapy with updated outcomes. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(11):2412-8, 2004
                                                                          18. Littrell LA et al: Radiographic, CT, and MR imaging features of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas: a retrospective review of 174 de novo cases. Radiographics. 24(5):1397-409, 2004