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Degenerative Scoliosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • De novo scoliosis
              • Definitions

                • Lateral curvature in spine due to degenerative disc and facet disease in older patients
                • Deformity in skeletally mature patient with Cobb angle of > 10° in coronal plane
                  • Advanced degenerative changes and predominance of lower lumbar curves

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Other Modality Findings

                            • Imaging Recommendations

                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                PATHOLOGY

                                • General Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Lee SK et al: Degenerative lumbar scoliosis: added value of coronal images to routine lumbar MRI for nerve root compromise. Eur Radiol. ePub, 2020
                                            2. Kim W et al: Clinical Evaluation, imaging, and management of adolescent idiopathic and adult degenerative scoliosis. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 48(4):402-14, 2019
                                            3. Rustenburg CME et al: Biomechanical properties in motion of lumbar spines with degenerative scoliosis. J Biomech. 109495, 2019
                                            4. Alimi M et al: Radiological and clinical outcomes following extreme lateral interbody fusion. J Neurosurg Spine. 20(6):623-35, 2014
                                            5. Khajavi K et al: Two-year radiographic and clinical outcomes of a minimally invasive, lateral, transpsoas approach for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 23(6):1215-23, 2014
                                            6. Kotwal S et al: Degenerative scoliosis: a review. HSS J. 7(3):257-64, 2011
                                            7. Benglis DM et al: Minimally invasive anterolateral approaches for the treatment of back pain and adult degenerative deformity. Neurosurgery. 63(3 Suppl):191-6, 2008
                                            8. Birknes JK et al: Adult degenerative scoliosis: a review. Neurosurgery. 63(3 Suppl):94-103, 2008
                                            9. Berven SH et al: The Scoliosis Research Society classification for adult spinal deformity. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 18(2):207-13, 2007
                                            10. Ploumis A et al: Degenerative lumbar scoliosis associated with spinal stenosis. Spine J. 7(4):428-36, 2007
                                            11. Bartynski WS et al: Lumbar root compression in the lateral recess: MR imaging, conventional myelography, and CT myelography comparison with surgical confirmation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(3):348-60, 2003
                                            12. Daffner SD et al: Adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Am J Orthop. 32(2):77-82; discussion 82, 2003
                                            13. Gupta MC: Degenerative scoliosis. Options for surgical management. Orthop Clin North Am. 34(2):269-79, 2003
                                            14. Tsuchiya K et al: Application of multi-detector row helical scanning to postmyelographic CT. Eur Radiol. 13(6):1438-43, 2003
                                            15. Murata Y et al: Changes in scoliotic curvature and lordotic angle during the early phase of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Spine. 27(20):2268-73, 2002
                                            16. Willen J et al: The diagnostic effect from axial loading of the lumbar spine during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with degenerative disorders. Spine. 26(23):2607-14, 2001
                                            17. Duance VC et al: Changes in collagen cross-linking in degenerative disc disease and scoliosis. Spine. 23(23):2545-51, 1998
                                            18. McPhee IB et al: The surgical management of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Posterior instrumentation alone versus two stage surgery. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 57(1):16-22, 1998
                                            19. Pritchett JW et al: Degenerative symptomatic lumbar scoliosis. Spine. 18(6):700-3, 1993
                                            20. Thornbury JR et al: Disk-caused nerve compression in patients with acute low-back pain: diagnosis with MR, CT myelography, and plain CT. Radiology. 186(3):731-8, 1993
                                            21. Ogilvie JW: Adult scoliosis: evaluation and nonsurgical treatment. Instr Course Lect. 41:251-5, 1992
                                            22. Grubb SA et al: Degenerative adult onset scoliosis. Spine. 13(3):241-5, 1988
                                            23. Robin GC et al: Scoliosis in the elderly: a follow-up study. Spine. 7(4):355-9, 1982
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • De novo scoliosis
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Lateral curvature in spine due to degenerative disc and facet disease in older patients
                                                          • Deformity in skeletally mature patient with Cobb angle of > 10° in coronal plane
                                                            • Advanced degenerative changes and predominance of lower lumbar curves

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Other Modality Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Lee SK et al: Degenerative lumbar scoliosis: added value of coronal images to routine lumbar MRI for nerve root compromise. Eur Radiol. ePub, 2020
                                                                                      2. Kim W et al: Clinical Evaluation, imaging, and management of adolescent idiopathic and adult degenerative scoliosis. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 48(4):402-14, 2019
                                                                                      3. Rustenburg CME et al: Biomechanical properties in motion of lumbar spines with degenerative scoliosis. J Biomech. 109495, 2019
                                                                                      4. Alimi M et al: Radiological and clinical outcomes following extreme lateral interbody fusion. J Neurosurg Spine. 20(6):623-35, 2014
                                                                                      5. Khajavi K et al: Two-year radiographic and clinical outcomes of a minimally invasive, lateral, transpsoas approach for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 23(6):1215-23, 2014
                                                                                      6. Kotwal S et al: Degenerative scoliosis: a review. HSS J. 7(3):257-64, 2011
                                                                                      7. Benglis DM et al: Minimally invasive anterolateral approaches for the treatment of back pain and adult degenerative deformity. Neurosurgery. 63(3 Suppl):191-6, 2008
                                                                                      8. Birknes JK et al: Adult degenerative scoliosis: a review. Neurosurgery. 63(3 Suppl):94-103, 2008
                                                                                      9. Berven SH et al: The Scoliosis Research Society classification for adult spinal deformity. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 18(2):207-13, 2007
                                                                                      10. Ploumis A et al: Degenerative lumbar scoliosis associated with spinal stenosis. Spine J. 7(4):428-36, 2007
                                                                                      11. Bartynski WS et al: Lumbar root compression in the lateral recess: MR imaging, conventional myelography, and CT myelography comparison with surgical confirmation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(3):348-60, 2003
                                                                                      12. Daffner SD et al: Adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Am J Orthop. 32(2):77-82; discussion 82, 2003
                                                                                      13. Gupta MC: Degenerative scoliosis. Options for surgical management. Orthop Clin North Am. 34(2):269-79, 2003
                                                                                      14. Tsuchiya K et al: Application of multi-detector row helical scanning to postmyelographic CT. Eur Radiol. 13(6):1438-43, 2003
                                                                                      15. Murata Y et al: Changes in scoliotic curvature and lordotic angle during the early phase of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Spine. 27(20):2268-73, 2002
                                                                                      16. Willen J et al: The diagnostic effect from axial loading of the lumbar spine during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with degenerative disorders. Spine. 26(23):2607-14, 2001
                                                                                      17. Duance VC et al: Changes in collagen cross-linking in degenerative disc disease and scoliosis. Spine. 23(23):2545-51, 1998
                                                                                      18. McPhee IB et al: The surgical management of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Posterior instrumentation alone versus two stage surgery. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 57(1):16-22, 1998
                                                                                      19. Pritchett JW et al: Degenerative symptomatic lumbar scoliosis. Spine. 18(6):700-3, 1993
                                                                                      20. Thornbury JR et al: Disk-caused nerve compression in patients with acute low-back pain: diagnosis with MR, CT myelography, and plain CT. Radiology. 186(3):731-8, 1993
                                                                                      21. Ogilvie JW: Adult scoliosis: evaluation and nonsurgical treatment. Instr Course Lect. 41:251-5, 1992
                                                                                      22. Grubb SA et al: Degenerative adult onset scoliosis. Spine. 13(3):241-5, 1988
                                                                                      23. Robin GC et al: Scoliosis in the elderly: a follow-up study. Spine. 7(4):355-9, 1982