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Demyelinating Diseases
Blaise V. Jones, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Acquired demyelinating processes characterized by inflammation
              • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
              • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
              • Lyme disease
              • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)
                • Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD)
                • Devic disease

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • MR Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Berzero G et al: Diagnosis and therapy of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its variants. Expert Rev Neurother. 16(1):83-101, 2016
                                  2. Faguy K: Multiple sclerosis: an update. Radiol Technol. 87(5):529-50, 2016
                                  3. Borchers AT et al: Lyme disease: a rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment. J Autoimmun. 57:82-115, 2015
                                  4. Koelman DL et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current controversies in diagnosis and outcome. J Neurol. 262(9):2013-24, 2015
                                  5. Wingerchuk DM et al: International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Neurology. 85(2):177-89, 2015
                                  6. Flanagan EP et al: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 14(9):483, 2014
                                  7. Ketelslegers IA et al: A comparison of MRI criteria for diagnosing pediatric ADEM and MS. Neurology. 74(18):1412-5, 2010
                                  8. VanLandingham M et al: An uncommon illness with a rare presentation: neurosurgical management of ADEM with tumefactive demyelination in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(5):655-61, 2010
                                  9. Calabrese M et al: Cortical lesions in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal MR study. Neurology. 72(15):1330-6, 2009
                                  10. Callen DJ et al: Role of MRI in the differentiation of ADEM from MS in children. Neurology. 72(11):968-73, 2009
                                  11. Filippi M et al: Conventional MRI in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. 17 Suppl 1:3S-9S, 2007
                                  12. Janardhan V et al: Multiple sclerosis: hyperintense lesions in the brain on nonenhanced T1-weighted MR images evidenced as areas of T1 shortening. Radiology. 244(3):823-31, 2007
                                  13. Traboulsee AL et al: The role of MRI in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Adv Neurol. 98:125-46, 2006
                                  14. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the "McDonald Criteria". Ann Neurol. 58(6):840-6, 2005
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Pathology

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Acquired demyelinating processes characterized by inflammation
                                              • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
                                              • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
                                              • Lyme disease
                                              • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)
                                                • Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD)
                                                • Devic disease

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Berzero G et al: Diagnosis and therapy of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its variants. Expert Rev Neurother. 16(1):83-101, 2016
                                                                  2. Faguy K: Multiple sclerosis: an update. Radiol Technol. 87(5):529-50, 2016
                                                                  3. Borchers AT et al: Lyme disease: a rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment. J Autoimmun. 57:82-115, 2015
                                                                  4. Koelman DL et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current controversies in diagnosis and outcome. J Neurol. 262(9):2013-24, 2015
                                                                  5. Wingerchuk DM et al: International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Neurology. 85(2):177-89, 2015
                                                                  6. Flanagan EP et al: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 14(9):483, 2014
                                                                  7. Ketelslegers IA et al: A comparison of MRI criteria for diagnosing pediatric ADEM and MS. Neurology. 74(18):1412-5, 2010
                                                                  8. VanLandingham M et al: An uncommon illness with a rare presentation: neurosurgical management of ADEM with tumefactive demyelination in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(5):655-61, 2010
                                                                  9. Calabrese M et al: Cortical lesions in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal MR study. Neurology. 72(15):1330-6, 2009
                                                                  10. Callen DJ et al: Role of MRI in the differentiation of ADEM from MS in children. Neurology. 72(11):968-73, 2009
                                                                  11. Filippi M et al: Conventional MRI in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. 17 Suppl 1:3S-9S, 2007
                                                                  12. Janardhan V et al: Multiple sclerosis: hyperintense lesions in the brain on nonenhanced T1-weighted MR images evidenced as areas of T1 shortening. Radiology. 244(3):823-31, 2007
                                                                  13. Traboulsee AL et al: The role of MRI in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Adv Neurol. 98:125-46, 2006
                                                                  14. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the "McDonald Criteria". Ann Neurol. 58(6):840-6, 2005