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Dermoid Cyst
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Dermoid tumor, "dermoid"
              • Definitions

                • Benign spinal mass
                • Composed of cells that embryologically comprise skin and its appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Nonvascular Interventions

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. AbouZeid AA et al: The Currarino triad: what pediatric surgeons need to know. J Pediatr Surg. 52(8):1260-8, 2017
                                                2. Graillon T et al: Intramedullary epidermoid cysts in adults: case report and updated literature review. Neurochirurgie. 63(2):99-102, 2017
                                                3. Garg K et al: Isolated central canal rupture of spinal dermoid. Report of 3 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 21(3):361-6, 2014
                                                4. Mishra SS et al: Thoracic congenital dermal sinus associated with intramedullary spinal dermoid cyst. J Pediatr Neurosci. 9(1):30-2, 2014
                                                5. Vadivelu S et al: Infected lumbar dermoid cyst mimicking intramedullary spinal cord tumor: observations and outcomes. J Pediatr Neurosci. 9(1):21-6, 2014
                                                6. Liu H et al: Microsurgical treatment of spinal epidermoid and dermoid cysts in the lumbosacral region. J Clin Neurosci. 19(5):712-7, 2012
                                                7. van Aalst J et al: Intraspinal dermoid and epidermoid tumors: report of 18 cases and reappraisal of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg. 45(4):281-90, 2009
                                                8. Danzer E et al: Intradural inclusion cysts following in utero closure of myelomeningocele: clinical implications and follow-up findings. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2(6):406-13, 2008
                                                9. Ramos E et al: Congenital dermoid tumor in a child at initial myelomeningocele closure: an etiological discussion. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2(6):414-5, 2008
                                                10. Kasliwal MK et al: Symptomatic central canal rupture heralding the presence of an asymptomatic conus dermoid. J Neurooncol. 84(1):39-40, 2007
                                                11. Kukreja K et al: Differentiation between pediatric spinal arachnoid and epidermoid-dermoid cysts: is diffusion-weighted MRI useful? Pediatr Radiol. 37(6):556-60, 2007
                                                12. Muthukumar N et al: Intramedullary dermoid in a low lying conus tethered by a fatty filum - embryological implications. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 149(11):1173-5, 2007
                                                13. Coppens JR et al: Presumed rupture of a conus medullaris dermoid cyst with cervical intramedullary fat and lipomatous infiltration of the cauda equina. Case illustration. J Neurosurg Spine. 5(2):178, 2006
                                                14. Terai T et al: Adult onset tethered cord syndrome associated with intradural dermoid cyst. A case report. Spinal Cord. 44(4):260-2, 2006
                                                15. Najjar MW et al: Dorsal intramedullary dermoids. Neurosurg Rev. 28(4):320-5, 2005
                                                16. Goyal A et al: Spontaneous rupture of spinal dermoid cyst with disseminated lipid droplets in central canal and ventricles. J Neurosurg Sci. 48(2):63-5, 2004
                                                17. Ziv ET et al: Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid tumor: two cases and a review of the literature. Spine. 29(1):E15-8, 2004
                                                18. Bretz A et al: Intraspinal epidermoid cyst successfully treated with radiotherapy: case report. Neurosurgery. 53(6):1429-31; discussion 1431-2, 2003
                                                19. Ferrara P et al: Intramedullary epidermoid cyst presenting with abnormal urological manifestations. Spinal Cord. 41(11):645-8, 2003
                                                20. Amato VG et al: Intramedullary epidermoid cyst: preoperative diagnosis and surgical management after MRI introduction. Case report and updating of the literature. J Neurosurg Sci. 46(3-4):122-6, 2002
                                                21. Graham D et al: Greenfield's Neuropathology. 7th ed. London: Arnold. 964-6, 2002
                                                22. Scarrow AM et al: Epidermoid cyst of the thoracic spine: case history. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 103(4):220-2, 2001
                                                23. Kikuchi K et al: The utility of diffusion-weighted imaging with navigator-echo technique for the diagnosis of spinal epidermoid cysts. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1164-6, 2000
                                                24. Potgieter S et al: Epidermoid tumours associated with lumbar punctures performed in early neonatal life. Dev Med Child Neurol. 40(4):266-9, 1998
                                                25. Machida T et al: Acquired epidermoid tumour in the thoracic spinal canal. Neuroradiology. 35(4):316-8, 1993
                                                26. Toro VE et al: MRI of iatrogenic spinal epidermoid tumor. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 17(6):970-2, 1993
                                                27. Lunardi P et al: Long-term results of the surgical treatment of spinal dermoid and epidermoid tumors. Neurosurgery. 25(6):860-4, 1989
                                                28. Shikata J et al: Intraspinal epidermoid and dermoid cysts. Surgical results of seven cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 107(2):105-9, 1988
                                                29. Phillips J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of intraspinal epidermoid cyst: a case report. J Comput Tomogr. 11(2):181-3, 1987
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Dermoid tumor, "dermoid"
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Benign spinal mass
                                                              • Composed of cells that embryologically comprise skin and its appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands)

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. AbouZeid AA et al: The Currarino triad: what pediatric surgeons need to know. J Pediatr Surg. 52(8):1260-8, 2017
                                                                                              2. Graillon T et al: Intramedullary epidermoid cysts in adults: case report and updated literature review. Neurochirurgie. 63(2):99-102, 2017
                                                                                              3. Garg K et al: Isolated central canal rupture of spinal dermoid. Report of 3 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 21(3):361-6, 2014
                                                                                              4. Mishra SS et al: Thoracic congenital dermal sinus associated with intramedullary spinal dermoid cyst. J Pediatr Neurosci. 9(1):30-2, 2014
                                                                                              5. Vadivelu S et al: Infected lumbar dermoid cyst mimicking intramedullary spinal cord tumor: observations and outcomes. J Pediatr Neurosci. 9(1):21-6, 2014
                                                                                              6. Liu H et al: Microsurgical treatment of spinal epidermoid and dermoid cysts in the lumbosacral region. J Clin Neurosci. 19(5):712-7, 2012
                                                                                              7. van Aalst J et al: Intraspinal dermoid and epidermoid tumors: report of 18 cases and reappraisal of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg. 45(4):281-90, 2009
                                                                                              8. Danzer E et al: Intradural inclusion cysts following in utero closure of myelomeningocele: clinical implications and follow-up findings. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2(6):406-13, 2008
                                                                                              9. Ramos E et al: Congenital dermoid tumor in a child at initial myelomeningocele closure: an etiological discussion. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2(6):414-5, 2008
                                                                                              10. Kasliwal MK et al: Symptomatic central canal rupture heralding the presence of an asymptomatic conus dermoid. J Neurooncol. 84(1):39-40, 2007
                                                                                              11. Kukreja K et al: Differentiation between pediatric spinal arachnoid and epidermoid-dermoid cysts: is diffusion-weighted MRI useful? Pediatr Radiol. 37(6):556-60, 2007
                                                                                              12. Muthukumar N et al: Intramedullary dermoid in a low lying conus tethered by a fatty filum - embryological implications. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 149(11):1173-5, 2007
                                                                                              13. Coppens JR et al: Presumed rupture of a conus medullaris dermoid cyst with cervical intramedullary fat and lipomatous infiltration of the cauda equina. Case illustration. J Neurosurg Spine. 5(2):178, 2006
                                                                                              14. Terai T et al: Adult onset tethered cord syndrome associated with intradural dermoid cyst. A case report. Spinal Cord. 44(4):260-2, 2006
                                                                                              15. Najjar MW et al: Dorsal intramedullary dermoids. Neurosurg Rev. 28(4):320-5, 2005
                                                                                              16. Goyal A et al: Spontaneous rupture of spinal dermoid cyst with disseminated lipid droplets in central canal and ventricles. J Neurosurg Sci. 48(2):63-5, 2004
                                                                                              17. Ziv ET et al: Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid tumor: two cases and a review of the literature. Spine. 29(1):E15-8, 2004
                                                                                              18. Bretz A et al: Intraspinal epidermoid cyst successfully treated with radiotherapy: case report. Neurosurgery. 53(6):1429-31; discussion 1431-2, 2003
                                                                                              19. Ferrara P et al: Intramedullary epidermoid cyst presenting with abnormal urological manifestations. Spinal Cord. 41(11):645-8, 2003
                                                                                              20. Amato VG et al: Intramedullary epidermoid cyst: preoperative diagnosis and surgical management after MRI introduction. Case report and updating of the literature. J Neurosurg Sci. 46(3-4):122-6, 2002
                                                                                              21. Graham D et al: Greenfield's Neuropathology. 7th ed. London: Arnold. 964-6, 2002
                                                                                              22. Scarrow AM et al: Epidermoid cyst of the thoracic spine: case history. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 103(4):220-2, 2001
                                                                                              23. Kikuchi K et al: The utility of diffusion-weighted imaging with navigator-echo technique for the diagnosis of spinal epidermoid cysts. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1164-6, 2000
                                                                                              24. Potgieter S et al: Epidermoid tumours associated with lumbar punctures performed in early neonatal life. Dev Med Child Neurol. 40(4):266-9, 1998
                                                                                              25. Machida T et al: Acquired epidermoid tumour in the thoracic spinal canal. Neuroradiology. 35(4):316-8, 1993
                                                                                              26. Toro VE et al: MRI of iatrogenic spinal epidermoid tumor. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 17(6):970-2, 1993
                                                                                              27. Lunardi P et al: Long-term results of the surgical treatment of spinal dermoid and epidermoid tumors. Neurosurgery. 25(6):860-4, 1989
                                                                                              28. Shikata J et al: Intraspinal epidermoid and dermoid cysts. Surgical results of seven cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 107(2):105-9, 1988
                                                                                              29. Phillips J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of intraspinal epidermoid cyst: a case report. J Comput Tomogr. 11(2):181-3, 1987