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Developmental Hip Dysplasia
Hank Baskin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Congenital dislocation of hip (archaic)
          • Definitions

            • Developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH): Spectrum of progressive hip abnormalities developing during infancy & resulting in acetabular dysplasia with femoral head malpositioning
              • Ranges from mild subluxation → dislocatable hip → fixed hip dislocation
              • Abnormal position of femoral head relative to acetabulum results in abnormal growth of both components of hip

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Nguyen JC et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: can contrast-enhanced MRI predict the development of avascular necrosis following surgery? Skeletal Radiol. 50(2):389-97, 2021
                                      2. Harsanyi S et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: a review of etiopathogenesis, risk factors, and genetic aspects. Medicina (Kaunas). 56(4), 2020
                                      3. Barrera CA et al: Imaging of developmental dysplasia of the hip: ultrasound, radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 49(12):1652-68, 2019
                                      4. Gkiatas I et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: a systematic literature review of the genes related with its occurrence. EFORT Open Rev. 4(10):595-601, 2019
                                      5. Kural B et al: Risk factor assessment and a ten-year experience of ddh screening in a well-child population. Biomed Res Int. 2019:7213681, 2019
                                      6. Louer CR et al: Should paediatricians initiate orthopaedic hip dysplasia referrals for infants with isolated asymmetric skin folds? J Child Orthop. 13(6):593-9, 2019
                                      7. Tan SHS et al: Correlations between ultrasonographic and subsequent radiographic findings of developmental dysplasia of the hips. Ultrasonography. 38(4):43-51, 2019
                                      8. Vaquero-Picado A et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: update of management. EFORT Open Rev. 4(9):548-56, 2019
                                      9. Zamborsky R et al: Developmental dysplasia of hip: perspectives in genetic screening. Med Sci (Basel). 7(4), 2019
                                      10. Ömeroğlu H et al: Associations between risk factors and developmental dysplasia of the hip and ultrasonographic hip type: a retrospective case control study. J Child Orthop. 13(2):161-6, 2019
                                      11. Mace J et al: Neonatal clinical screening of the hip in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a 15-year prospective longitudinal observational study. Bone Joint J. 97-B(2):265-9, 2015
                                      12. Tafazal S et al: Do we need to follow up an early normal ultrasound with a later plain radiograph in children with a family history of developmental dysplasia of the hip? Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 25(7):1171-5, 2015
                                      13. Azzopardi T et al: Late diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: an analysis of risk factors. J Pediatr Orthop B. 20(1):1-7, 2011
                                      14. Delaney LR et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: background and the utility of ultrasound. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 32(2):151-6, 2011
                                      15. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine: AIUM practice guideline for the performance of the ultrasound examination for detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Ultrasound Med. 28(1):114-9, 2009
                                      16. Mubarak SJ et al: Pavlik: the man and his method. J Pediatr Orthop. 23(3):342-6, 2003
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Congenital dislocation of hip (archaic)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH): Spectrum of progressive hip abnormalities developing during infancy & resulting in acetabular dysplasia with femoral head malpositioning
                                                  • Ranges from mild subluxation → dislocatable hip → fixed hip dislocation
                                                  • Abnormal position of femoral head relative to acetabulum results in abnormal growth of both components of hip

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Nguyen JC et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: can contrast-enhanced MRI predict the development of avascular necrosis following surgery? Skeletal Radiol. 50(2):389-97, 2021
                                                                          2. Harsanyi S et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: a review of etiopathogenesis, risk factors, and genetic aspects. Medicina (Kaunas). 56(4), 2020
                                                                          3. Barrera CA et al: Imaging of developmental dysplasia of the hip: ultrasound, radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 49(12):1652-68, 2019
                                                                          4. Gkiatas I et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: a systematic literature review of the genes related with its occurrence. EFORT Open Rev. 4(10):595-601, 2019
                                                                          5. Kural B et al: Risk factor assessment and a ten-year experience of ddh screening in a well-child population. Biomed Res Int. 2019:7213681, 2019
                                                                          6. Louer CR et al: Should paediatricians initiate orthopaedic hip dysplasia referrals for infants with isolated asymmetric skin folds? J Child Orthop. 13(6):593-9, 2019
                                                                          7. Tan SHS et al: Correlations between ultrasonographic and subsequent radiographic findings of developmental dysplasia of the hips. Ultrasonography. 38(4):43-51, 2019
                                                                          8. Vaquero-Picado A et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: update of management. EFORT Open Rev. 4(9):548-56, 2019
                                                                          9. Zamborsky R et al: Developmental dysplasia of hip: perspectives in genetic screening. Med Sci (Basel). 7(4), 2019
                                                                          10. Ömeroğlu H et al: Associations between risk factors and developmental dysplasia of the hip and ultrasonographic hip type: a retrospective case control study. J Child Orthop. 13(2):161-6, 2019
                                                                          11. Mace J et al: Neonatal clinical screening of the hip in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a 15-year prospective longitudinal observational study. Bone Joint J. 97-B(2):265-9, 2015
                                                                          12. Tafazal S et al: Do we need to follow up an early normal ultrasound with a later plain radiograph in children with a family history of developmental dysplasia of the hip? Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 25(7):1171-5, 2015
                                                                          13. Azzopardi T et al: Late diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: an analysis of risk factors. J Pediatr Orthop B. 20(1):1-7, 2011
                                                                          14. Delaney LR et al: Developmental dysplasia of the hip: background and the utility of ultrasound. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 32(2):151-6, 2011
                                                                          15. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine: AIUM practice guideline for the performance of the ultrasound examination for detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Ultrasound Med. 28(1):114-9, 2009
                                                                          16. Mubarak SJ et al: Pavlik: the man and his method. J Pediatr Orthop. 23(3):342-6, 2003