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Developmental Spinal Stenosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Short pedicle syndrome, congenital short pedicles, developmental spinal stenosis
              • Definitions

                • Reduced AP canal diameter secondary to short, squat pedicles and laterally directed laminae

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Cheung JPY et al: Etiology of developmental spinal stenosis: a genome-wide association study. J Orthop Res. 36(4):1262-8, 2018
                                                2. Kitab S et al: Redefining lumbar spinal stenosis as a developmental syndrome: an MRI-based multivariate analysis of findings in 709 patients throughout the 16- to 82-year age spectrum. J Neurosurg Spine. 1-7, 2018
                                                3. Cheung JPY et al: Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 12:3, 2017
                                                4. Iclal ET et al: A practical radiographic visual estimation technique for the prediction of developmental narrowing of cervical spinal canal. Br J Radiol. 90(1078):20170286, 2017
                                                5. Nagata K et al: the prevalence of tandem spinal stenosis and its characteristics in a population-based MRI study: the Wakayama Spine Study. Eur Spine J. 26(10):2529-35, 2017
                                                6. Nouri A et al: Cervical cord-canal mismatch: a new method for identifying predisposition to spinal cord injury. World Neurosurg. 108:112-7, 2017
                                                7. Cheung JP et al: Defining clinically relevant values for developmental spinal stenosis: a large-scale magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(13):1067-76, 2014
                                                8. Kanno H et al: Dynamic change of dural sac cross-sectional area in axial loaded magnetic resonance imaging correlates with the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 37(3):207-13, 2012
                                                9. Schizas C et al: Qualitative grading of severity of lumbar spinal stenosis based on the morphology of the dural sac on magnetic resonance images. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 35(21):1919-24, 2010
                                                10. Chad DA: Lumbar spinal stenosis. Neurol Clin. 25(2):407-18, 2007
                                                11. Singh K et al: Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis. Spine J. 5(6):615-22, 2005
                                                12. Brigham CD et al: Permanent partial cervical spinal cord injury in a professional football player who had only congenital stenosis. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(8):1553-6, 2003
                                                13. Allen CR et al: Transient quadriparesis in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 21(1):15-27, 2002
                                                14. Oguz H et al: Measurement of spinal canal diameters in young subjects with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Eur Spine J. 11(2):115-8, 2002
                                                15. Boockvar JA et al: Cervical spinal stenosis and sports-related cervical cord neurapraxia in children. Spine. 26(24):2709-12; discussion 2713, 2001
                                                16. Shaffrey CI et al: Modified open-door laminoplasty for treatment of neurological deficits in younger patients with congenital spinal stenosis: analysis of clinical and radiographic data. J Neurosurg. 90(4 Suppl):170-7, 1999
                                                17. Bey T et al: Spinal cord injury with a narrow spinal canal: utilizing Torg's ratio method of analyzing cervical spine radiographs. J Emerg Med. 16(1):79-82, 1998
                                                18. Yoshida M et al: Indication and clinical results of laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy caused by disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis. Spine. 23(22):2391-7, 1998
                                                19. Torg JS et al: Suggested management guidelines for participation in collision activities with congenital, developmental, or postinjury lesions involving the cervical spine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 29(7 Suppl):S256-72, 1997
                                                20. Azhar MM et al: Congenital spine deformity, congenital stenosis, diastematomyelia, and tight filum terminale in a workmen's compensation patient: a case report. Spine. 21(6):770-4, 1996
                                                21. Ducker TB: Post-traumatic progressive cervical myelopathy in patient with congenital spinal stenosis. J Spinal Disord. 9(1):76; discussion 77-81, 1996
                                                22. Lemaire JJ et al: [Lumbar canal stenosis. Retrospective study of 158 operated cases] Neurochirurgie. 41(2):89-97, 1995
                                                23. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Sports Med. 20(6):429-34, 1995
                                                24. Major NM et al: Central and foraminal stenosis of the lumbar spine. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 3(3):559-561, 1993
                                                25. Smith MG et al: The prevalence of congenital cervical spinal stenosis in 262 college and high school football players. J Ky Med Assoc. 91(7):273-5, 1993
                                                26. Moss A G et al: Computed tomography of the body. Vol 2, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. 496-500; 1992
                                                27. Scher AT: Spinal cord concussion in rugby players. Am J Sports Med. 19(5):485-8, 1991
                                                28. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Clin Sports Med. 9(2):279-96, 1990
                                                29. Dauser RC et al: Symptomatic congenital spinal stenosis in a child. Neurosurgery. 11(1 Pt 1):61-3, 1982
                                                30. Dharker SR et al: Congenital stenosis of the lumbar canal. A study of 60 cases. Neurol India. 26(1):1-6, 1978
                                                31. Reale F et al: Congenital stenosis of lumbar spinal canal: comparison of results of surgical treatment for this and other causes of lumbar syndrome. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 42(3-4):199-207, 1978
                                                32. Hinck VC et al: Congenital stenosis of the cervical spinal canal. Northwest Med. 67(3):268-74, 1968
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Short pedicle syndrome, congenital short pedicles, developmental spinal stenosis
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Reduced AP canal diameter secondary to short, squat pedicles and laterally directed laminae

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Cheung JPY et al: Etiology of developmental spinal stenosis: a genome-wide association study. J Orthop Res. 36(4):1262-8, 2018
                                                                                              2. Kitab S et al: Redefining lumbar spinal stenosis as a developmental syndrome: an MRI-based multivariate analysis of findings in 709 patients throughout the 16- to 82-year age spectrum. J Neurosurg Spine. 1-7, 2018
                                                                                              3. Cheung JPY et al: Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 12:3, 2017
                                                                                              4. Iclal ET et al: A practical radiographic visual estimation technique for the prediction of developmental narrowing of cervical spinal canal. Br J Radiol. 90(1078):20170286, 2017
                                                                                              5. Nagata K et al: the prevalence of tandem spinal stenosis and its characteristics in a population-based MRI study: the Wakayama Spine Study. Eur Spine J. 26(10):2529-35, 2017
                                                                                              6. Nouri A et al: Cervical cord-canal mismatch: a new method for identifying predisposition to spinal cord injury. World Neurosurg. 108:112-7, 2017
                                                                                              7. Cheung JP et al: Defining clinically relevant values for developmental spinal stenosis: a large-scale magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(13):1067-76, 2014
                                                                                              8. Kanno H et al: Dynamic change of dural sac cross-sectional area in axial loaded magnetic resonance imaging correlates with the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 37(3):207-13, 2012
                                                                                              9. Schizas C et al: Qualitative grading of severity of lumbar spinal stenosis based on the morphology of the dural sac on magnetic resonance images. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 35(21):1919-24, 2010
                                                                                              10. Chad DA: Lumbar spinal stenosis. Neurol Clin. 25(2):407-18, 2007
                                                                                              11. Singh K et al: Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis. Spine J. 5(6):615-22, 2005
                                                                                              12. Brigham CD et al: Permanent partial cervical spinal cord injury in a professional football player who had only congenital stenosis. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(8):1553-6, 2003
                                                                                              13. Allen CR et al: Transient quadriparesis in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 21(1):15-27, 2002
                                                                                              14. Oguz H et al: Measurement of spinal canal diameters in young subjects with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Eur Spine J. 11(2):115-8, 2002
                                                                                              15. Boockvar JA et al: Cervical spinal stenosis and sports-related cervical cord neurapraxia in children. Spine. 26(24):2709-12; discussion 2713, 2001
                                                                                              16. Shaffrey CI et al: Modified open-door laminoplasty for treatment of neurological deficits in younger patients with congenital spinal stenosis: analysis of clinical and radiographic data. J Neurosurg. 90(4 Suppl):170-7, 1999
                                                                                              17. Bey T et al: Spinal cord injury with a narrow spinal canal: utilizing Torg's ratio method of analyzing cervical spine radiographs. J Emerg Med. 16(1):79-82, 1998
                                                                                              18. Yoshida M et al: Indication and clinical results of laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy caused by disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis. Spine. 23(22):2391-7, 1998
                                                                                              19. Torg JS et al: Suggested management guidelines for participation in collision activities with congenital, developmental, or postinjury lesions involving the cervical spine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 29(7 Suppl):S256-72, 1997
                                                                                              20. Azhar MM et al: Congenital spine deformity, congenital stenosis, diastematomyelia, and tight filum terminale in a workmen's compensation patient: a case report. Spine. 21(6):770-4, 1996
                                                                                              21. Ducker TB: Post-traumatic progressive cervical myelopathy in patient with congenital spinal stenosis. J Spinal Disord. 9(1):76; discussion 77-81, 1996
                                                                                              22. Lemaire JJ et al: [Lumbar canal stenosis. Retrospective study of 158 operated cases] Neurochirurgie. 41(2):89-97, 1995
                                                                                              23. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Sports Med. 20(6):429-34, 1995
                                                                                              24. Major NM et al: Central and foraminal stenosis of the lumbar spine. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 3(3):559-561, 1993
                                                                                              25. Smith MG et al: The prevalence of congenital cervical spinal stenosis in 262 college and high school football players. J Ky Med Assoc. 91(7):273-5, 1993
                                                                                              26. Moss A G et al: Computed tomography of the body. Vol 2, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. 496-500; 1992
                                                                                              27. Scher AT: Spinal cord concussion in rugby players. Am J Sports Med. 19(5):485-8, 1991
                                                                                              28. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Clin Sports Med. 9(2):279-96, 1990
                                                                                              29. Dauser RC et al: Symptomatic congenital spinal stenosis in a child. Neurosurgery. 11(1 Pt 1):61-3, 1982
                                                                                              30. Dharker SR et al: Congenital stenosis of the lumbar canal. A study of 60 cases. Neurol India. 26(1):1-6, 1978
                                                                                              31. Reale F et al: Congenital stenosis of lumbar spinal canal: comparison of results of surgical treatment for this and other causes of lumbar syndrome. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 42(3-4):199-207, 1978
                                                                                              32. Hinck VC et al: Congenital stenosis of the cervical spinal canal. Northwest Med. 67(3):268-74, 1968