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Diabetes
Donna G. Blankenbaker, MD, FACR; B. J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Definitions

        • Symptomatic abnormalities of skin, bones, joints, and tendons associated with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus

      IMAGING

      • General Features

        • Radiographic Findings

          • MR Findings

            • Other Modality Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Iyengar KP et al: Update on functional imaging in the evaluation of diabetic foot infection. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 16:119-24, 2021
                                  2. La Fontaine J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot osteomyelitis: imaging accuracy in biopsy-proven disease. J Foot Ankle Surg. 60(1):17-20, 2021
                                  3. Jang YH et al: Multivariate analyses of MRI findings for predicting osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients. Acta Radiol. 61(9):1205-12, 2020
                                  4. Duryea D et al: Outcomes in diabetic foot ulcer patients with isolated T2 marrow signal abnormality in the underlying bone: should the diagnosis of "osteitis" be changed to "early osteomyelitis"? Skeletal Radiol. 46(10):1327-33, 2017
                                  5. Ranger TA et al: Is there an association between tendinopathy and diabetes mellitus? A systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 50(16):982-9, 2016
                                  6. Baker JC et al: Diabetic musculoskeletal complications and their imaging mimics. Radiographics. 32(7):1959-74, 2012
                                  7. Thakkar RS et al: Spectrum of high-resolution MRI findings in diabetic neuropathy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(2):407-12, 2012
                                  8. Donovan A et al: Use of MR imaging in diagnosing diabetes-related pedal osteomyelitis. Radiographics. 30(3):723-36, 2010
                                  9. Huang BK et al: Diabetic myopathy: MRI patterns and current trends. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(1):198-204, 2010
                                  10. Vartanians VM et al: Is there a role for imaging in the management of patients with diabetic foot? Skeletal Radiol. 38(7):633-6, 2009
                                  11. Donovan A et al: Current concepts in imaging diabetic pedal osteomyelitis. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(6):1105-24, vii, 2008
                                  12. Ahmadi ME et al: Neuropathic arthropathy of the foot with and without superimposed osteomyelitis: MR imaging characteristics. Radiology. 238(2):622-31, 2006
                                  13. Collins MS et al: T1-weighted MRI characteristics of pedal osteomyelitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(2):386-93, 2005
                                  14. Ledermann HP et al: MR image analysis of pedal osteomyelitis: distribution, patterns of spread, and frequency of associated ulceration and septic arthritis. Radiology. 223(3):747-55, 2002
                                  15. Jelinek JS et al: Muscle infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus: MR imaging findings. Radiology. 211(1):241-7, 1999
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Definitions

                                        • Symptomatic abnormalities of skin, bones, joints, and tendons associated with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                          • MR Findings

                                            • Other Modality Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Iyengar KP et al: Update on functional imaging in the evaluation of diabetic foot infection. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 16:119-24, 2021
                                                                  2. La Fontaine J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot osteomyelitis: imaging accuracy in biopsy-proven disease. J Foot Ankle Surg. 60(1):17-20, 2021
                                                                  3. Jang YH et al: Multivariate analyses of MRI findings for predicting osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients. Acta Radiol. 61(9):1205-12, 2020
                                                                  4. Duryea D et al: Outcomes in diabetic foot ulcer patients with isolated T2 marrow signal abnormality in the underlying bone: should the diagnosis of "osteitis" be changed to "early osteomyelitis"? Skeletal Radiol. 46(10):1327-33, 2017
                                                                  5. Ranger TA et al: Is there an association between tendinopathy and diabetes mellitus? A systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 50(16):982-9, 2016
                                                                  6. Baker JC et al: Diabetic musculoskeletal complications and their imaging mimics. Radiographics. 32(7):1959-74, 2012
                                                                  7. Thakkar RS et al: Spectrum of high-resolution MRI findings in diabetic neuropathy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(2):407-12, 2012
                                                                  8. Donovan A et al: Use of MR imaging in diagnosing diabetes-related pedal osteomyelitis. Radiographics. 30(3):723-36, 2010
                                                                  9. Huang BK et al: Diabetic myopathy: MRI patterns and current trends. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(1):198-204, 2010
                                                                  10. Vartanians VM et al: Is there a role for imaging in the management of patients with diabetic foot? Skeletal Radiol. 38(7):633-6, 2009
                                                                  11. Donovan A et al: Current concepts in imaging diabetic pedal osteomyelitis. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(6):1105-24, vii, 2008
                                                                  12. Ahmadi ME et al: Neuropathic arthropathy of the foot with and without superimposed osteomyelitis: MR imaging characteristics. Radiology. 238(2):622-31, 2006
                                                                  13. Collins MS et al: T1-weighted MRI characteristics of pedal osteomyelitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(2):386-93, 2005
                                                                  14. Ledermann HP et al: MR image analysis of pedal osteomyelitis: distribution, patterns of spread, and frequency of associated ulceration and septic arthritis. Radiology. 223(3):747-55, 2002
                                                                  15. Jelinek JS et al: Muscle infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus: MR imaging findings. Radiology. 211(1):241-7, 1999