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Differentiated and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma
Philip R. Chapman, MD
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7

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. Yang F et al: Survival in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a comparative analysis between the 7th and 8th versions of the AJCC/UICC staging system based on the SEER database. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 10:10, 2019
                                2. Zanoni DK et al: Changes in the 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of head and neck cancer: rationale and implications. Curr Oncol Rep. 21(6):52, 2019
                                3. Kim K et al: The updated AJCC/TNM staging system for papillary thyroid cancer (8th Edition): from the perspective of genomic analysis. World J Surg. 42(11):3624-31, 2018
                                4. van Velsen EFS et al: Comparing the prognostic value of the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Tumor Node Metastasis staging system between papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 28(8):976-81, 2018
                                5. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                6. Kholmatov R et al: Locally advanced asymptomatic papillary thyroid cancer presenting with retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis symptoms. Gland Surg. 6(6):733-7, 2017
                                7. Pontius LN et al: Projecting survival in papillary thyroid cancer: a comparison of the seventh and eighth editions of the American Joint Commission on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control staging systems in two contemporary national patient cohorts. Thyroid. 27(11):1408-16, 2017
                                8. Shah JP: Thyroid carcinoma: epidemiology, histology, and diagnosis. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 13(4 Suppl 4):3-6, 2015
                                9. Fancy T et al: Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 43(2):221-7, vii, 2010
                                10. Layfield LJ et al: Thyroid aspiration cytology: current status. CA Cancer J Clin. 59(2):99-110, 2009
                                11. Mehanna HM et al: Investigating the thyroid nodule. BMJ. 338:b733, 2009
                                12. Eszlinger M et al: Perspectives for improved and more accurate classification of thyroid epithelial tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 93(9):3286-94, 2008
                                13. Johnson NA et al: Postoperative surveillance of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: rationale, techniques, and controversies. Radiology. 249(2):429-44, 2008
                                14. Katz SC et al: PET-associated incidental neoplasms of the thyroid. J Am Coll Surg. 207(2):259-64, 2008
                                15. Lubberink M et al: The role of (124)I-PET in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 52(1):30-6, 2008
                                16. Pacini F et al: Differentiated thyroid cancer: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 19 Suppl 2:ii99-101, 2008
                                17. Benbassat CA et al: Current concepts in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Isr Med Assoc J. 9(7):540-5, 2007
                                18. Hu A et al: Extrathyroidal extension in well-differentiated thyroid cancer: macroscopic vs microscopic as a predictor of outcome. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 133(7):644-9, 2007
                                19. Oudoux A et al: Sensitivity and prognostic value of positron emission tomography with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and sensitivity of immunoscintigraphy in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma treated with anticarcinoembryonic antigen-targeted radioimmunotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 92(12):4590-7, 2007
                                20. van den Brekel MW et al: What the clinician wants to know: surgical perspective and ultrasound for lymph node imaging of the neck. Cancer Imaging. 5 Spec No A:S41-9, 2005
                                21. Mansi L et al: Nuclear medicine in diagnosis, staging and follow-up of thyroid cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 48(2):82-95, 2004
                                22. Rohren EM et al: Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology. 231(2):305-32, 2004
                                23. Zhuang H et al: Investigation of thyroid, head, and neck cancers with PET. Radiol Clin North Am. 42(6):1101-11, viii, 2004
                                24. Khan N et al: PET in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer. Br J Radiol. 76(910):690-5, 2003
                                25. Sherman SI: Thyroid carcinoma. Lancet. 361(9356):501-11, 2003
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes of Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Yang F et al: Survival in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a comparative analysis between the 7th and 8th versions of the AJCC/UICC staging system based on the SEER database. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 10:10, 2019
                                                              2. Zanoni DK et al: Changes in the 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of head and neck cancer: rationale and implications. Curr Oncol Rep. 21(6):52, 2019
                                                              3. Kim K et al: The updated AJCC/TNM staging system for papillary thyroid cancer (8th Edition): from the perspective of genomic analysis. World J Surg. 42(11):3624-31, 2018
                                                              4. van Velsen EFS et al: Comparing the prognostic value of the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Tumor Node Metastasis staging system between papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 28(8):976-81, 2018
                                                              5. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                              6. Kholmatov R et al: Locally advanced asymptomatic papillary thyroid cancer presenting with retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis symptoms. Gland Surg. 6(6):733-7, 2017
                                                              7. Pontius LN et al: Projecting survival in papillary thyroid cancer: a comparison of the seventh and eighth editions of the American Joint Commission on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control staging systems in two contemporary national patient cohorts. Thyroid. 27(11):1408-16, 2017
                                                              8. Shah JP: Thyroid carcinoma: epidemiology, histology, and diagnosis. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 13(4 Suppl 4):3-6, 2015
                                                              9. Fancy T et al: Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 43(2):221-7, vii, 2010
                                                              10. Layfield LJ et al: Thyroid aspiration cytology: current status. CA Cancer J Clin. 59(2):99-110, 2009
                                                              11. Mehanna HM et al: Investigating the thyroid nodule. BMJ. 338:b733, 2009
                                                              12. Eszlinger M et al: Perspectives for improved and more accurate classification of thyroid epithelial tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 93(9):3286-94, 2008
                                                              13. Johnson NA et al: Postoperative surveillance of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: rationale, techniques, and controversies. Radiology. 249(2):429-44, 2008
                                                              14. Katz SC et al: PET-associated incidental neoplasms of the thyroid. J Am Coll Surg. 207(2):259-64, 2008
                                                              15. Lubberink M et al: The role of (124)I-PET in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 52(1):30-6, 2008
                                                              16. Pacini F et al: Differentiated thyroid cancer: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 19 Suppl 2:ii99-101, 2008
                                                              17. Benbassat CA et al: Current concepts in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Isr Med Assoc J. 9(7):540-5, 2007
                                                              18. Hu A et al: Extrathyroidal extension in well-differentiated thyroid cancer: macroscopic vs microscopic as a predictor of outcome. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 133(7):644-9, 2007
                                                              19. Oudoux A et al: Sensitivity and prognostic value of positron emission tomography with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and sensitivity of immunoscintigraphy in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma treated with anticarcinoembryonic antigen-targeted radioimmunotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 92(12):4590-7, 2007
                                                              20. van den Brekel MW et al: What the clinician wants to know: surgical perspective and ultrasound for lymph node imaging of the neck. Cancer Imaging. 5 Spec No A:S41-9, 2005
                                                              21. Mansi L et al: Nuclear medicine in diagnosis, staging and follow-up of thyroid cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 48(2):82-95, 2004
                                                              22. Rohren EM et al: Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology. 231(2):305-32, 2004
                                                              23. Zhuang H et al: Investigation of thyroid, head, and neck cancers with PET. Radiol Clin North Am. 42(6):1101-11, viii, 2004
                                                              24. Khan N et al: PET in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer. Br J Radiol. 76(910):690-5, 2003
                                                              25. Sherman SI: Thyroid carcinoma. Lancet. 361(9356):501-11, 2003