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Diffuse Axonal Injury
Gregory L. Katzman, MD, MBA; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Diffuse axonal injury (DAI)
            • Synonyms

              • Closed head injury (CHI)
            • Definitions

              • Traumatic axonal stretch injury

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Kirov II et al: Proton MR spectroscopy correlates diffuse axonal abnormalities with post-concussive symptoms in mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 30(13):1200-4, 2013
                                            2. Palacios EM et al: White matter/gray matter contrast changes in chronic and diffuse traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 30(23):1991-4, 2013
                                            3. Benson RR et al: Detection of hemorrhagic and axonal pathology in mild traumatic brain injury using advanced MRI: implications for neurorehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation. 31(3):261-79, 2012
                                            4. Clayton EH et al: Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain. J R Soc Interface. 9(76):2899-910, 2012
                                            5. Matsukawa H et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage on computed tomography and corpus callosum injury on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 117(2):334-9, 2012
                                            6. Yanagawa Y et al: Relationship between maximum intracranial pressure and traumatic lesions detected by T2*-weighted imaging in diffuse axonal injury. J Trauma. 66(1):162-5, 2009
                                            7. Cohen BA et al: Proton MR spectroscopy and MRI-volumetry in mild traumatic brain injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(5):907-13, 2007
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Diffuse axonal injury (DAI)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Closed head injury (CHI)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Traumatic axonal stretch injury

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Kirov II et al: Proton MR spectroscopy correlates diffuse axonal abnormalities with post-concussive symptoms in mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 30(13):1200-4, 2013
                                                                                      2. Palacios EM et al: White matter/gray matter contrast changes in chronic and diffuse traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 30(23):1991-4, 2013
                                                                                      3. Benson RR et al: Detection of hemorrhagic and axonal pathology in mild traumatic brain injury using advanced MRI: implications for neurorehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation. 31(3):261-79, 2012
                                                                                      4. Clayton EH et al: Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain. J R Soc Interface. 9(76):2899-910, 2012
                                                                                      5. Matsukawa H et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage on computed tomography and corpus callosum injury on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 117(2):334-9, 2012
                                                                                      6. Yanagawa Y et al: Relationship between maximum intracranial pressure and traumatic lesions detected by T2*-weighted imaging in diffuse axonal injury. J Trauma. 66(1):162-5, 2009
                                                                                      7. Cohen BA et al: Proton MR spectroscopy and MRI-volumetry in mild traumatic brain injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(5):907-13, 2007