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Diffuse Axonal Injury
Luke L. Linscott, MD; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Diffuse axonal injury (DAI)
            • Definitions

              • Traumatic axonal stretch injury

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Ferrazzano PA et al: Use of magnetic resonance imaging in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: assessment of current practice. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-9, 2019
                                            2. Parent M et al: Alterations of parenchymal microstructure, neuronal connectivity, and cerebrovascular resistance at adolescence after mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury in early development. J Neurotrauma. 36(4):601-8, 2019
                                            3. Frey C et al: Essentials of head trauma imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 39(5):469-80, 2018
                                            4. Grassi DC et al: Current contribution of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 76(3):189-99, 2018
                                            5. van Eijck MM et al: Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic brain injury is a prognostic factor for functional outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Inj. 32(4):395-402, 2018
                                            6. Mechtler LL et al: Advanced neuroimaging of mild traumatic brain injury. Neurol Clin. 32(1):31-58, 2014
                                            7. Liu J et al: Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic cerebral microbleeds: an evaluation of imaging techniques. Neural Regen Res. 9(12):1222-30, 2014
                                            8. Mata-Mbemba D et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage on initial computed tomography as marker of diffuse axonal injury after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. ePub, 2014
                                            9. Moen KG et al: Traumatic axonal injury: the prognostic value of lesion load in corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus in different magnetic resonance imaging sequences. J Neurotrauma. 31(17):1486-96, 2014
                                            10. Perez AM et al: Longitudinal white matter changes after traumatic axonal injury. J Neurotrauma. 31(17):1478-85, 2014
                                            11. Xiong KL et al: Diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in traumatic brain injury: a review of recent literature. Brain Imaging Behav. 8(4):487-962014
                                            12. Clayton EH et al: Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain. J R Soc Interface. 9(76):2899-910, 2012
                                            13. Matsukawa H et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage on computed tomography and corpus callosum injury on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 117(2):334-9, 2012
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Diffuse axonal injury (DAI)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Traumatic axonal stretch injury

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Ferrazzano PA et al: Use of magnetic resonance imaging in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: assessment of current practice. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-9, 2019
                                                                                      2. Parent M et al: Alterations of parenchymal microstructure, neuronal connectivity, and cerebrovascular resistance at adolescence after mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury in early development. J Neurotrauma. 36(4):601-8, 2019
                                                                                      3. Frey C et al: Essentials of head trauma imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 39(5):469-80, 2018
                                                                                      4. Grassi DC et al: Current contribution of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 76(3):189-99, 2018
                                                                                      5. van Eijck MM et al: Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic brain injury is a prognostic factor for functional outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Inj. 32(4):395-402, 2018
                                                                                      6. Mechtler LL et al: Advanced neuroimaging of mild traumatic brain injury. Neurol Clin. 32(1):31-58, 2014
                                                                                      7. Liu J et al: Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic cerebral microbleeds: an evaluation of imaging techniques. Neural Regen Res. 9(12):1222-30, 2014
                                                                                      8. Mata-Mbemba D et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage on initial computed tomography as marker of diffuse axonal injury after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. ePub, 2014
                                                                                      9. Moen KG et al: Traumatic axonal injury: the prognostic value of lesion load in corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus in different magnetic resonance imaging sequences. J Neurotrauma. 31(17):1486-96, 2014
                                                                                      10. Perez AM et al: Longitudinal white matter changes after traumatic axonal injury. J Neurotrauma. 31(17):1478-85, 2014
                                                                                      11. Xiong KL et al: Diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in traumatic brain injury: a review of recent literature. Brain Imaging Behav. 8(4):487-962014
                                                                                      12. Clayton EH et al: Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain. J R Soc Interface. 9(76):2899-910, 2012
                                                                                      13. Matsukawa H et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage on computed tomography and corpus callosum injury on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 117(2):334-9, 2012