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Dirofilariasis
Carlos S. Restrepo, MD; Tomás Franquet, MD, PhD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Dirofilaria immitis (dog "heartworm")
              • Definitions

                • Filarial nematode found commonly in hearts of dogs and other mammals (e.g., cats, foxes, muskrats, and wolves)
                • Humans are accidental hosts
                  • Become infected by microfilaria transmitted by mosquitoes

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Atsumi E et al: Thirteen cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis in a single institution in Okinawa Island. Virchows Arch. 475(3):335-40, 2019
                                        2. Jacob S et al: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis masquerading as a mass. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 24(7):722-5, 2016
                                        3. Diaz JH: Increasing risks of human dirofilariasis in travelers. J Travel Med. 22(2):116-23, 2015
                                        4. Stone M et al: 18-FDG uptake in pulmonary dirofilariasis. J Radiol Case Rep. 9(4):28-33, 2015
                                        5. Oshiro Y et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis: computed tomography findings and correlation with pathologic features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(6):796-800, 2004
                                        6. Flieder DB et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis: a clinicopathologic study of 41 lesions in 39 patients. Hum Pathol. 30(3):251-6, 1999
                                        7. Milanez de Campos JR et al: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: analysis of 24 cases from São Paulo, Brazil. Chest. 112(3):729-33, 1997
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Dirofilaria immitis (dog "heartworm")
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Filarial nematode found commonly in hearts of dogs and other mammals (e.g., cats, foxes, muskrats, and wolves)
                                                      • Humans are accidental hosts
                                                        • Become infected by microfilaria transmitted by mosquitoes

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Atsumi E et al: Thirteen cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis in a single institution in Okinawa Island. Virchows Arch. 475(3):335-40, 2019
                                                                              2. Jacob S et al: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis masquerading as a mass. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 24(7):722-5, 2016
                                                                              3. Diaz JH: Increasing risks of human dirofilariasis in travelers. J Travel Med. 22(2):116-23, 2015
                                                                              4. Stone M et al: 18-FDG uptake in pulmonary dirofilariasis. J Radiol Case Rep. 9(4):28-33, 2015
                                                                              5. Oshiro Y et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis: computed tomography findings and correlation with pathologic features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(6):796-800, 2004
                                                                              6. Flieder DB et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis: a clinicopathologic study of 41 lesions in 39 patients. Hum Pathol. 30(3):251-6, 1999
                                                                              7. Milanez de Campos JR et al: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: analysis of 24 cases from São Paulo, Brazil. Chest. 112(3):729-33, 1997