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Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (Areas 9, 46)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Memory

        • Planning

          • Decision Making

            Structural Connections

            • Cortical Connections

              • Subcortical Connections

                Functional Connections

                • Coactive Regions

                  • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                    Areas 9- and 46-Associated Disorders

                    • Major Depressive Disorder

                      • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

                        • Schizophrenia

                          • Addiction

                            Selected References

                            1. Klaus J et al: The role of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in language processing. Neuroscience. 377:197-205, 2018
                            2. Dedoncker J et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in healthy and neuropsychiatric samples: influence of stimulation parameters. Brain Stimul. 9(4):501-17, 2016
                            3. Jarbo K et al: Converging structural and functional connectivity of orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal cortex in the human striatum. J Neurosci. 35(9):3865-78, 2015
                            4. Brunoni AR et al: Working memory improvement with non-invasive brain stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Cogn. 86:1-9, 2014
                            5. Blumenfeld RS et al: Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis. Cereb Cortex. 23(10):2457-66, 2013
                            6. Galván A et al: Greater risk sensitivity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in young smokers than in nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 229(2):345-55, 2013
                            7. Hayashi T et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex interactions during self-control of cigarette craving. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(11):4422-7, 2013
                            8. Schon K et al: Complementary roles of medial temporal lobes and mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for working memory for novel and familiar trial-unique visual stimuli. Eur J Neurosci. 37(4):668-78, 2013
                            9. Aupperle RL et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during emotional anticipation and neuropsychological performance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 69(4):360-71, 2012
                            10. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                            11. Baumgartner T et al: Dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex orchestrate normative choice. Nat Neurosci. 14(11):1468-74, 2011
                            12. Blumenfeld RS et al: Putting the pieces together: the role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relational memory encoding. J Cogn Neurosci. 23(1):257-65, 2011
                            13. Kaller CP et al: Dissociable contributions of left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in planning. Cereb Cortex. 21(2):307-17, 2011
                            14. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                            15. Staudinger MR et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates striatal reward encoding during reappraisal of reward anticipation. Cereb Cortex. 21(11):2578-88, 2011
                            16. Park SQ et al: Prefrontal cortex fails to learn from reward prediction errors in alcohol dependence. J Neurosci. 30(22):7749-53, 2010
                            17. van Veelen NM et al: Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction in medication-naive schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 123(1):22-9, 2010
                            18. Fales CL et al: Antidepressant treatment normalizes hypoactivity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during emotional interference processing in major depression. J Affect Disord. 112(1-3):206-11, 2009
                            19. Hare TA et al: Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system. Science. 324(5927):646-8, 2009
                            20. Koenigs M et al: The functional neuroanatomy of depression: distinct roles for ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Behav Brain Res. 201(2):239-43, 2009
                            21. Kumari V et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity predicts responsiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapy in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 66(6):594-602, 2009
                            22. Qin S et al: Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Biol Psychiatry. 66(1):25-32, 2009
                            23. Ruge H et al: Attention, intention, and strategy in preparatory control. Neuropsychologia. 47(7):1670-85, 2009
                            24. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            Location and Boundaries

                            • Location

                              • Boundaries

                                Function

                                • Memory

                                  • Planning

                                    • Decision Making

                                      Structural Connections

                                      • Cortical Connections

                                        • Subcortical Connections

                                          Functional Connections

                                          • Coactive Regions

                                            • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                                              Areas 9- and 46-Associated Disorders

                                              • Major Depressive Disorder

                                                • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

                                                  • Schizophrenia

                                                    • Addiction

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Klaus J et al: The role of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in language processing. Neuroscience. 377:197-205, 2018
                                                      2. Dedoncker J et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in healthy and neuropsychiatric samples: influence of stimulation parameters. Brain Stimul. 9(4):501-17, 2016
                                                      3. Jarbo K et al: Converging structural and functional connectivity of orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal cortex in the human striatum. J Neurosci. 35(9):3865-78, 2015
                                                      4. Brunoni AR et al: Working memory improvement with non-invasive brain stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Cogn. 86:1-9, 2014
                                                      5. Blumenfeld RS et al: Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis. Cereb Cortex. 23(10):2457-66, 2013
                                                      6. Galván A et al: Greater risk sensitivity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in young smokers than in nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 229(2):345-55, 2013
                                                      7. Hayashi T et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex interactions during self-control of cigarette craving. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(11):4422-7, 2013
                                                      8. Schon K et al: Complementary roles of medial temporal lobes and mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for working memory for novel and familiar trial-unique visual stimuli. Eur J Neurosci. 37(4):668-78, 2013
                                                      9. Aupperle RL et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during emotional anticipation and neuropsychological performance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 69(4):360-71, 2012
                                                      10. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                                      11. Baumgartner T et al: Dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex orchestrate normative choice. Nat Neurosci. 14(11):1468-74, 2011
                                                      12. Blumenfeld RS et al: Putting the pieces together: the role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relational memory encoding. J Cogn Neurosci. 23(1):257-65, 2011
                                                      13. Kaller CP et al: Dissociable contributions of left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in planning. Cereb Cortex. 21(2):307-17, 2011
                                                      14. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                                      15. Staudinger MR et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates striatal reward encoding during reappraisal of reward anticipation. Cereb Cortex. 21(11):2578-88, 2011
                                                      16. Park SQ et al: Prefrontal cortex fails to learn from reward prediction errors in alcohol dependence. J Neurosci. 30(22):7749-53, 2010
                                                      17. van Veelen NM et al: Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction in medication-naive schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 123(1):22-9, 2010
                                                      18. Fales CL et al: Antidepressant treatment normalizes hypoactivity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during emotional interference processing in major depression. J Affect Disord. 112(1-3):206-11, 2009
                                                      19. Hare TA et al: Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system. Science. 324(5927):646-8, 2009
                                                      20. Koenigs M et al: The functional neuroanatomy of depression: distinct roles for ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Behav Brain Res. 201(2):239-43, 2009
                                                      21. Kumari V et al: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity predicts responsiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapy in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 66(6):594-602, 2009
                                                      22. Qin S et al: Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Biol Psychiatry. 66(1):25-32, 2009
                                                      23. Ruge H et al: Attention, intention, and strategy in preparatory control. Neuropsychologia. 47(7):1670-85, 2009
                                                      24. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003