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Duct Ectasia
Hilda Tso, DO; Wei Tse Yang, MBBS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Mammary duct ectasia, mastitis obliterans
              • Definitions

                • Duct widening resulting from secretory stasis, including stagnant colostrum, which may result in periductal inflammation and fibrosis

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Mammographic Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. D'Alfonso TM et al: A review of inflammatory processes of the breast with a focus on diagnosis in core biopsy samples. J Pathol Transl Med. 49(4):279-87, 2015
                                          2. Langer A et al: Breast lumps in pregnant women. Diagn Interv Imaging. 96(10):1077-87, 2015
                                          3. Gao Y et al: Echogenic breast masses at US: to biopsy or not to biopsy? Radiographics. 33(2):419-34, 2013
                                          4. Kim WH et al: Intraductal mass on breast ultrasound: final outcomes and predictors of malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200:932-7, 2013
                                          5. Chou YH: The role of US-detected dilated ducts in BI-RADS categories. Presented at: Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting; Chicago, IL. November 25, 2012
                                          6. Eiada R et al: Papillary lesions of the breast: MRI, ultrasound, and mammographic appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(2):264-71, 2012
                                          7. Ferris-James DM et al: Imaging approaches to diagnosis and management of common ductal abnormalities. Radiographics. 32(4):1009-30, 2012
                                          8. Tominaga J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of intraductal papillomas of the breast. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 35(1):153-7, 2011
                                          9. Chang CB et al: Solitary dilated duct identified at mammography: outcomes analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(2):378-82, 2010
                                          10. Hovanessian Larsen LJ et al: Granulomatous lobular mastitis: imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(2):574-81, 2009
                                          11. Nicholson BT et al: Nipple-areolar complex: normal anatomy and benign and malignant processes. Radiographics. 29(2):509-23, 2009
                                          12. Brookes MJ et al: Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions. Clin Radiol. 63(11):1265-73, 2008
                                          13. Torres-Tabanera M et al: Percutaneous microductectomy with a directional vacuum-assisted system guided by ultrasonography for the treatment of breast discharge: experience in 63 cases. Acta Radiol. 49(3):271-6, 2008
                                          14. Da Costa D et al: Common and unusual diseases of the nipple-areolar complex. Radiographics. 27 Suppl 1():S65-77, 2007
                                          15. Hari S et al: Bilateral severe mammary duct ectasia. Acta Radiol. 48(4):398-400, 2007
                                          16. Ozturk M et al: Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings. Acta Radiol. 48(2):150-5, 2007
                                          17. Ganesan S et al: Ultrasound spectrum in intraductal papillary neoplasms of breast. Br J Radiol. 79(946):843-9, 2006
                                          18. Hirose M et al: Multi-volume fusion imaging of MR ductography and MR mammography for patients with nipple discharge. Magn Reson Med Sci. 5(2):105-12, 2006
                                          19. Vargas HI et al: Outcomes of clinical and surgical assessment of women with pathological nipple discharge. Am Surg. 72(2):124-8, 2006
                                          20. Yang WT et al: Sonographic, mammographic, and histopathologic correlation of symptomatic ductal carcinoma in situ. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):101-10, 2004
                                          21. Daniel BL et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of intraductal papilloma of the breast. Magn Reson Imaging. 21(8):887-92, 2003
                                          22. Peters F et al: Severity of mastalgia in relation to milk duct dilatation. Obstet Gynecol. 101(1):54-60, 2003
                                          23. Ammari FF et al: Periductal mastitis. Clinical characteristics and outcome. Saudi Med J. 23(7):819-22, 2002
                                          24. Al-Masad JK: Mammary duct ectasia and periductal mastitis in males. Saudi Med J. 22(11):1030-3, 2001
                                          25. Dennis MA et al: Incidental treatment of nipple discharge caused by benign intraductal papilloma through diagnostic Mammotome biopsy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 174(5):1263-8, 2000
                                          26. Weinstein SP et al: Spectrum of US findings in pediatric and adolescent patients with palpable breast masses. Radiographics. 20(6):1613-21, 2000
                                          27. Huynh PT et al: Dilated duct pattern at mammography. Radiology. 204(1):137-41, 1997
                                          28. Sickles EA: Mammographic features of "early" breast cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 143(3):461-4, 1984
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Mammary duct ectasia, mastitis obliterans
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Duct widening resulting from secretory stasis, including stagnant colostrum, which may result in periductal inflammation and fibrosis

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Mammographic Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. D'Alfonso TM et al: A review of inflammatory processes of the breast with a focus on diagnosis in core biopsy samples. J Pathol Transl Med. 49(4):279-87, 2015
                                                                                  2. Langer A et al: Breast lumps in pregnant women. Diagn Interv Imaging. 96(10):1077-87, 2015
                                                                                  3. Gao Y et al: Echogenic breast masses at US: to biopsy or not to biopsy? Radiographics. 33(2):419-34, 2013
                                                                                  4. Kim WH et al: Intraductal mass on breast ultrasound: final outcomes and predictors of malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200:932-7, 2013
                                                                                  5. Chou YH: The role of US-detected dilated ducts in BI-RADS categories. Presented at: Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting; Chicago, IL. November 25, 2012
                                                                                  6. Eiada R et al: Papillary lesions of the breast: MRI, ultrasound, and mammographic appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(2):264-71, 2012
                                                                                  7. Ferris-James DM et al: Imaging approaches to diagnosis and management of common ductal abnormalities. Radiographics. 32(4):1009-30, 2012
                                                                                  8. Tominaga J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of intraductal papillomas of the breast. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 35(1):153-7, 2011
                                                                                  9. Chang CB et al: Solitary dilated duct identified at mammography: outcomes analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(2):378-82, 2010
                                                                                  10. Hovanessian Larsen LJ et al: Granulomatous lobular mastitis: imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(2):574-81, 2009
                                                                                  11. Nicholson BT et al: Nipple-areolar complex: normal anatomy and benign and malignant processes. Radiographics. 29(2):509-23, 2009
                                                                                  12. Brookes MJ et al: Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions. Clin Radiol. 63(11):1265-73, 2008
                                                                                  13. Torres-Tabanera M et al: Percutaneous microductectomy with a directional vacuum-assisted system guided by ultrasonography for the treatment of breast discharge: experience in 63 cases. Acta Radiol. 49(3):271-6, 2008
                                                                                  14. Da Costa D et al: Common and unusual diseases of the nipple-areolar complex. Radiographics. 27 Suppl 1():S65-77, 2007
                                                                                  15. Hari S et al: Bilateral severe mammary duct ectasia. Acta Radiol. 48(4):398-400, 2007
                                                                                  16. Ozturk M et al: Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings. Acta Radiol. 48(2):150-5, 2007
                                                                                  17. Ganesan S et al: Ultrasound spectrum in intraductal papillary neoplasms of breast. Br J Radiol. 79(946):843-9, 2006
                                                                                  18. Hirose M et al: Multi-volume fusion imaging of MR ductography and MR mammography for patients with nipple discharge. Magn Reson Med Sci. 5(2):105-12, 2006
                                                                                  19. Vargas HI et al: Outcomes of clinical and surgical assessment of women with pathological nipple discharge. Am Surg. 72(2):124-8, 2006
                                                                                  20. Yang WT et al: Sonographic, mammographic, and histopathologic correlation of symptomatic ductal carcinoma in situ. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):101-10, 2004
                                                                                  21. Daniel BL et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of intraductal papilloma of the breast. Magn Reson Imaging. 21(8):887-92, 2003
                                                                                  22. Peters F et al: Severity of mastalgia in relation to milk duct dilatation. Obstet Gynecol. 101(1):54-60, 2003
                                                                                  23. Ammari FF et al: Periductal mastitis. Clinical characteristics and outcome. Saudi Med J. 23(7):819-22, 2002
                                                                                  24. Al-Masad JK: Mammary duct ectasia and periductal mastitis in males. Saudi Med J. 22(11):1030-3, 2001
                                                                                  25. Dennis MA et al: Incidental treatment of nipple discharge caused by benign intraductal papilloma through diagnostic Mammotome biopsy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 174(5):1263-8, 2000
                                                                                  26. Weinstein SP et al: Spectrum of US findings in pediatric and adolescent patients with palpable breast masses. Radiographics. 20(6):1613-21, 2000
                                                                                  27. Huynh PT et al: Dilated duct pattern at mammography. Radiology. 204(1):137-41, 1997
                                                                                  28. Sickles EA: Mammographic features of "early" breast cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 143(3):461-4, 1984