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Duplications and Anomalies of IVC
Bryan R. Foster, MD; Matthew T. Heller, MD, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Congenital anomalies of inferior vena cava (IVC)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Oliveira JD et al: Congenital systemic venous return anomalies to the right atrium review. Insights Imaging. 10(1):115, 2019
                                    2. Liu Y et al: Radiological features of azygos and hemiazygos continuation of inferior vena cava: a case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 97(17):e0546, 2018
                                    3. Pomeranz CB et al: Deep venous thrombosis in a child with inferior vena cava and renal anomalies: KILT syndrome. Pediatr Radiol. 48(10):1521-5, 2018
                                    4. Doe C et al: Anatomic and technical considerations: inferior vena cava filter placement. Semin Intervent Radiol. 33(2):88-92, 2016
                                    5. Smillie RP et al: Imaging evaluation of the inferior vena cava. Radiographics. 35(2):578-92, 2015
                                    6. Malaki M et al: Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava. Clin Radiol. 67(2):165-71, 2012
                                    7. Honma S et al: Left inferior vena cava with regressed right inferior vena cava. Anat Sci Int. 83(3):173-8, 2008
                                    8. Kakitsubata Y et al: Intrahepatic venous continuation associated with inferior vena cava hypoplasia: evaluation with sonography, MR imaging and MR angiography. JBR-BTR. 91(6):227-30, 2008
                                    9. Kandpal H et al: Imaging the inferior vena cava: a road less traveled. Radiographics. 28(3):669-89, 2008
                                    10. Cizginer S et al: Thrombosed interrupted inferior vena cava and retroaortic left renal vein mimicking retroperitoneal neoplasm. Abdom Imaging. 32(3):403-6, 2007
                                    11. Koc Z et al: Venous variants and anomalies on routine abdominal multi-detector row CT. Eur J Radiol. 61(2):267-78, 2007
                                    12. Zhang L et al: Spectrum of the inferior vena cava: MDCT findings. Abdom Imaging. 32(4):495-503, 2007
                                    13. Srivastava A et al: Inferior vena cava in urology: importance of developmental abnormalities in clinical practice. ScientificWorldJournal. 5:558-63, 2005
                                    14. Basile A et al: Embryologic and acquired anomalies of the inferior vena cava with recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Abdom Imaging. 28(3):400-3, 2003
                                    15. Yilmaz E et al: Interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos/hemiazygos continuation accompanied by distinct renal vein anomalies: MRA and CT assessment. Abdom Imaging. 28(3):392-4, 2003
                                    16. Brochert A et al: Unusual duplication anomaly of the inferior vena cava with normal drainage of the right IVC and hemiazygous continuation of the left IVC. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 12(12):1453-5, 2001
                                    17. Bass JE et al: Spectrum of congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava: cross-sectional imaging findings. Radiographics. 20(3):639-52, 2000
                                    18. Bass JE et al: Absence of the infrarenal inferior vena cava with preservation of the suprarenal segment as revealed by CT and MR venography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(6):1610-2, 1999
                                    19. Mayo J et al: Anomalies of the inferior vena cava. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 140(2):339-45, 1983
                                    20. Breckenridge JW et al: Azygos continuation of inferior vena cava: CT appearance. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 4(3):392-7, 1980
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Congenital anomalies of inferior vena cava (IVC)

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Oliveira JD et al: Congenital systemic venous return anomalies to the right atrium review. Insights Imaging. 10(1):115, 2019
                                                                      2. Liu Y et al: Radiological features of azygos and hemiazygos continuation of inferior vena cava: a case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 97(17):e0546, 2018
                                                                      3. Pomeranz CB et al: Deep venous thrombosis in a child with inferior vena cava and renal anomalies: KILT syndrome. Pediatr Radiol. 48(10):1521-5, 2018
                                                                      4. Doe C et al: Anatomic and technical considerations: inferior vena cava filter placement. Semin Intervent Radiol. 33(2):88-92, 2016
                                                                      5. Smillie RP et al: Imaging evaluation of the inferior vena cava. Radiographics. 35(2):578-92, 2015
                                                                      6. Malaki M et al: Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava. Clin Radiol. 67(2):165-71, 2012
                                                                      7. Honma S et al: Left inferior vena cava with regressed right inferior vena cava. Anat Sci Int. 83(3):173-8, 2008
                                                                      8. Kakitsubata Y et al: Intrahepatic venous continuation associated with inferior vena cava hypoplasia: evaluation with sonography, MR imaging and MR angiography. JBR-BTR. 91(6):227-30, 2008
                                                                      9. Kandpal H et al: Imaging the inferior vena cava: a road less traveled. Radiographics. 28(3):669-89, 2008
                                                                      10. Cizginer S et al: Thrombosed interrupted inferior vena cava and retroaortic left renal vein mimicking retroperitoneal neoplasm. Abdom Imaging. 32(3):403-6, 2007
                                                                      11. Koc Z et al: Venous variants and anomalies on routine abdominal multi-detector row CT. Eur J Radiol. 61(2):267-78, 2007
                                                                      12. Zhang L et al: Spectrum of the inferior vena cava: MDCT findings. Abdom Imaging. 32(4):495-503, 2007
                                                                      13. Srivastava A et al: Inferior vena cava in urology: importance of developmental abnormalities in clinical practice. ScientificWorldJournal. 5:558-63, 2005
                                                                      14. Basile A et al: Embryologic and acquired anomalies of the inferior vena cava with recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Abdom Imaging. 28(3):400-3, 2003
                                                                      15. Yilmaz E et al: Interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos/hemiazygos continuation accompanied by distinct renal vein anomalies: MRA and CT assessment. Abdom Imaging. 28(3):392-4, 2003
                                                                      16. Brochert A et al: Unusual duplication anomaly of the inferior vena cava with normal drainage of the right IVC and hemiazygous continuation of the left IVC. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 12(12):1453-5, 2001
                                                                      17. Bass JE et al: Spectrum of congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava: cross-sectional imaging findings. Radiographics. 20(3):639-52, 2000
                                                                      18. Bass JE et al: Absence of the infrarenal inferior vena cava with preservation of the suprarenal segment as revealed by CT and MR venography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(6):1610-2, 1999
                                                                      19. Mayo J et al: Anomalies of the inferior vena cava. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 140(2):339-45, 1983
                                                                      20. Breckenridge JW et al: Azygos continuation of inferior vena cava: CT appearance. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 4(3):392-7, 1980