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Dural Arteriovenous Fistula
C. Douglas Phillips, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF)
            • Synonyms

              • Dural arteriovenous (AV) shunt, dural fistula
            • Definitions

              • Abnormal acquired direct shunt between dural artery and dural venous sinus or cortical vein
                • Heterogeneous group of lesions with common angioarchitecture (AV shunts within dura)
                • Distinct from true AV malformation because most DAVFs are acquired
                  • Exception is vein of Galen malformation

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Josephson CB et al: Computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography for detection of intracranial vascular malformations in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 9:CD009372, 2014
                                              2. Kobayashi A et al: Prognosis and treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Stroke. 9(6):670-7, 2014
                                              3. Lin N et al: Non-galenic arteriovenous fistulas in adults: transarterial embolization and literature review. J Neurointerv Surg. 7(11):835-40, 2014
                                              4. Morales H et al: Documented development of a dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant subsequent to sinus thrombosis: case report and review of the literature. Neuroradiology. 52(3):225-9, 2010
                                              5. Noguchi K et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: evaluation with combined 3D time-of-flight MR angiography and MR digital subtraction angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):183-90, 2004
                                              6. Burrows PE et al: Venous variations of the brain and cranial vault. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 13(1):13-26, 2003
                                              7. Kai Y et al: Pre- and post-treatment MR imaging and single photon emission CT in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas and retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(4):619-25, 2003
                                              8. Klisch J et al: Transvenous treatment of carotid cavernous and dural arteriovenous fistulae: results for 31 patients and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 53(4):836-56; discussion 856-7, 2003
                                              9. Rucker JC et al: Diffuse dural enhancement in cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. Neuroradiology. 45(2):88-9, 2003
                                              10. van Dijk JM et al: Venous congestive encephalopathy related to cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 13(1):55-72, 2003
                                              11. Chung SJ et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: analysis of 60 patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 13(2):79-88, 2002
                                              12. Coley SC et al: Dural arteriovenous fistulae: noninvasive diagnosis with dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(3):404-7, 2002
                                              13. Nomura S et al: Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by dural arteriovenous fistula of the sphenobasal sinus--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 42(6):255-8, 2002
                                              14. Satomi J et al: Benign cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: outcome of conservative management based on the natural history of the lesion. J Neurosurg. 97(4):767-70, 2002
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Dural arteriovenous (AV) shunt, dural fistula
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Abnormal acquired direct shunt between dural artery and dural venous sinus or cortical vein
                                                            • Heterogeneous group of lesions with common angioarchitecture (AV shunts within dura)
                                                            • Distinct from true AV malformation because most DAVFs are acquired
                                                              • Exception is vein of Galen malformation

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Angiographic Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Josephson CB et al: Computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography for detection of intracranial vascular malformations in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 9:CD009372, 2014
                                                                                          2. Kobayashi A et al: Prognosis and treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Stroke. 9(6):670-7, 2014
                                                                                          3. Lin N et al: Non-galenic arteriovenous fistulas in adults: transarterial embolization and literature review. J Neurointerv Surg. 7(11):835-40, 2014
                                                                                          4. Morales H et al: Documented development of a dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant subsequent to sinus thrombosis: case report and review of the literature. Neuroradiology. 52(3):225-9, 2010
                                                                                          5. Noguchi K et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: evaluation with combined 3D time-of-flight MR angiography and MR digital subtraction angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):183-90, 2004
                                                                                          6. Burrows PE et al: Venous variations of the brain and cranial vault. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 13(1):13-26, 2003
                                                                                          7. Kai Y et al: Pre- and post-treatment MR imaging and single photon emission CT in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas and retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(4):619-25, 2003
                                                                                          8. Klisch J et al: Transvenous treatment of carotid cavernous and dural arteriovenous fistulae: results for 31 patients and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 53(4):836-56; discussion 856-7, 2003
                                                                                          9. Rucker JC et al: Diffuse dural enhancement in cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. Neuroradiology. 45(2):88-9, 2003
                                                                                          10. van Dijk JM et al: Venous congestive encephalopathy related to cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 13(1):55-72, 2003
                                                                                          11. Chung SJ et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: analysis of 60 patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 13(2):79-88, 2002
                                                                                          12. Coley SC et al: Dural arteriovenous fistulae: noninvasive diagnosis with dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(3):404-7, 2002
                                                                                          13. Nomura S et al: Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by dural arteriovenous fistula of the sphenobasal sinus--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 42(6):255-8, 2002
                                                                                          14. Satomi J et al: Benign cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: outcome of conservative management based on the natural history of the lesion. J Neurosurg. 97(4):767-70, 2002