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Dural AV Fistula
Matthew Alexander, MD; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF)
          • Synonyms

            • Dural arteriovenous shunt (dAVS), dural arteriovenous malformation (dAVM)
          • Definitions

            • Heterogeneous group of lesions with common angioarchitecture (arteriovenous shunt with no intervening nidus)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Baharvahdat H et al: Updates in the management of cranial dural arteriovenous fistula. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 5(1):50-8, 2020
                                          2. Hou K et al: Endovascular treatment of the cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: current status and considerations. Int J Med Sci. 17(8):1121-30, 2020
                                          3. Alexander MD et al: Long-term outcomes of endovascular treatment of indirect carotid cavernous fistulae: superior efficacy, safety, and durability of transvenous coiling over other techniques. Neurosurgery. 85(1):E94-100, 2019
                                          4. Brito A et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula as a reversible cause of dementia: case series and literature review. World Neurosurg. 121:e543-53, 2019
                                          5. Wang XC et al: Brainstem congestion due to dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction: case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg. 118:181-7, 2018
                                          6. Xu K et al: Current status of endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistula of the transverse-sigmoid sinus: a literature review. Int J Med Sci. 15(14):1600-10, 2018
                                          7. Hacein-Bey L et al: Natural history, current concepts, classification, factors impacting endovascular therapy, and pathophysiology of cerebral and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 121:64-75, 2014
                                          8. Shin NY et al: Venous angioarchitectural features of intracranial dural arteriovenous shunt and its relation to the clinical course. Neuroradiology. 55(9):1119-27, 2013
                                          9. Bulters DO et al: The natural history of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae with cortical venous reflux--the significance of venous ectasia. Neurosurgery. 70(2):312-8; discussion 318-9, 2012
                                          10. Hetts SW et al: Pediatric intracranial nongalenic pial arteriovenous fistulas: clinical features, angioarchitecture, and outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(9):1710-9, 2012
                                          11. Zaidi HA et al: Multimodal treatment strategies for complex pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas: contemporary case series at Barrow Neurological Institute. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-10, 2015
                                          12. Appaduray SP et al: Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(1):16-22, 2014
                                          13. Edjlali M et al: Advanced technologies applied to physiopathological analysis of central nervous system aneurysms and vascular malformations. Diagn Interv Imaging. 95(12):1187-93, 2014
                                          14. Gandhi D et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: classification, imaging findings, and treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(6):1007-13, 2012
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Dural arteriovenous shunt (dAVS), dural arteriovenous malformation (dAVM)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Heterogeneous group of lesions with common angioarchitecture (arteriovenous shunt with no intervening nidus)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Baharvahdat H et al: Updates in the management of cranial dural arteriovenous fistula. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 5(1):50-8, 2020
                                                                                  2. Hou K et al: Endovascular treatment of the cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: current status and considerations. Int J Med Sci. 17(8):1121-30, 2020
                                                                                  3. Alexander MD et al: Long-term outcomes of endovascular treatment of indirect carotid cavernous fistulae: superior efficacy, safety, and durability of transvenous coiling over other techniques. Neurosurgery. 85(1):E94-100, 2019
                                                                                  4. Brito A et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula as a reversible cause of dementia: case series and literature review. World Neurosurg. 121:e543-53, 2019
                                                                                  5. Wang XC et al: Brainstem congestion due to dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction: case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg. 118:181-7, 2018
                                                                                  6. Xu K et al: Current status of endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistula of the transverse-sigmoid sinus: a literature review. Int J Med Sci. 15(14):1600-10, 2018
                                                                                  7. Hacein-Bey L et al: Natural history, current concepts, classification, factors impacting endovascular therapy, and pathophysiology of cerebral and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 121:64-75, 2014
                                                                                  8. Shin NY et al: Venous angioarchitectural features of intracranial dural arteriovenous shunt and its relation to the clinical course. Neuroradiology. 55(9):1119-27, 2013
                                                                                  9. Bulters DO et al: The natural history of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae with cortical venous reflux--the significance of venous ectasia. Neurosurgery. 70(2):312-8; discussion 318-9, 2012
                                                                                  10. Hetts SW et al: Pediatric intracranial nongalenic pial arteriovenous fistulas: clinical features, angioarchitecture, and outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(9):1710-9, 2012
                                                                                  11. Zaidi HA et al: Multimodal treatment strategies for complex pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas: contemporary case series at Barrow Neurological Institute. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-10, 2015
                                                                                  12. Appaduray SP et al: Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(1):16-22, 2014
                                                                                  13. Edjlali M et al: Advanced technologies applied to physiopathological analysis of central nervous system aneurysms and vascular malformations. Diagn Interv Imaging. 95(12):1187-93, 2014
                                                                                  14. Gandhi D et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: classification, imaging findings, and treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(6):1007-13, 2012