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Ectopic Testicle
Hank Baskin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Undescended testis (UDT), cryptorchidism
            • Definitions

              • UDT: Along normal route of descent but outside scrotum
              • Ectopic testis: Outside normal pathway of descent
              • Testicular retraction: Physiologic, reducible retraction of testis out of scrotum due to hyperactive cremasteric reflex
              • Ascending testis: Nonphysiologic, nonreducible retraction of testis out of scrotum (acquired UDT)
              • Absent testis: No testicular tissue; usually due to in utero insult; surgical diagnosis

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Points to Consider

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Zhou G et al: Clinical characteristics, ultrasonographic findings, and treatment of pediatric transverse testicular ectopia: a 10-year retrospective review. Urology. 154:249-54, 2021
                                          2. Abdullayev T et al: Transverse testicular ectopia: a case report and literature review. Int J Surg Case Rep. 65:361-4, 2019
                                          3. Punwani VV et al: Testicular ectopia: why does it happen and what do we do? J Pediatr Surg. 52(11):1842-7, 2017
                                          4. Telli O et al: Transverse testicular ectopia: a rare presentation with persistent müllerian duct syndrome. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 6(3):180-2, 2014
                                          5. Vos A et al: The value of ultrasonography in boys with a non-palpable testis. J Pediatr Surg. 49(7):1153-5, 2014
                                          6. Abacı A et al: Epidemiology, classification and management of undescended testes: does medication have value in its treatment? J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 5(2):65-72, 2013
                                          7. Ramareddy RS et al: Ectopic testis in children: experience with seven cases. J Pediatr Surg. 48(3):538-41, 2013
                                          8. Tasian GE et al: Diagnostic imaging in cryptorchidism: utility, indications, and effectiveness. J Pediatr Surg. 46(12):2406-13, 2011
                                          9. Ritzén EM et al: Management of undescended testes: how and when? Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 7(1):32-7, 2009
                                          10. Ritzén EM: Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol. 159 Suppl 1:S87-90, 2008
                                          11. Thambidorai CR et al: Transverse testicular ectopia: correlation of embryology with laparoscopic findings. Pediatr Surg Int. 24(3):371-4, 2008
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Undescended testis (UDT), cryptorchidism
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • UDT: Along normal route of descent but outside scrotum
                                                      • Ectopic testis: Outside normal pathway of descent
                                                      • Testicular retraction: Physiologic, reducible retraction of testis out of scrotum due to hyperactive cremasteric reflex
                                                      • Ascending testis: Nonphysiologic, nonreducible retraction of testis out of scrotum (acquired UDT)
                                                      • Absent testis: No testicular tissue; usually due to in utero insult; surgical diagnosis

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Points to Consider

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Zhou G et al: Clinical characteristics, ultrasonographic findings, and treatment of pediatric transverse testicular ectopia: a 10-year retrospective review. Urology. 154:249-54, 2021
                                                                                  2. Abdullayev T et al: Transverse testicular ectopia: a case report and literature review. Int J Surg Case Rep. 65:361-4, 2019
                                                                                  3. Punwani VV et al: Testicular ectopia: why does it happen and what do we do? J Pediatr Surg. 52(11):1842-7, 2017
                                                                                  4. Telli O et al: Transverse testicular ectopia: a rare presentation with persistent müllerian duct syndrome. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 6(3):180-2, 2014
                                                                                  5. Vos A et al: The value of ultrasonography in boys with a non-palpable testis. J Pediatr Surg. 49(7):1153-5, 2014
                                                                                  6. Abacı A et al: Epidemiology, classification and management of undescended testes: does medication have value in its treatment? J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 5(2):65-72, 2013
                                                                                  7. Ramareddy RS et al: Ectopic testis in children: experience with seven cases. J Pediatr Surg. 48(3):538-41, 2013
                                                                                  8. Tasian GE et al: Diagnostic imaging in cryptorchidism: utility, indications, and effectiveness. J Pediatr Surg. 46(12):2406-13, 2011
                                                                                  9. Ritzén EM et al: Management of undescended testes: how and when? Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 7(1):32-7, 2009
                                                                                  10. Ritzén EM: Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol. 159 Suppl 1:S87-90, 2008
                                                                                  11. Thambidorai CR et al: Transverse testicular ectopia: correlation of embryology with laparoscopic findings. Pediatr Surg Int. 24(3):371-4, 2008