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Ectopic Thyroid
Eunice Y. L. Dai, MBBS, FRCR; Yolanda Y. P. Lee, MBChB, FRCR; Anil T. Ahuja, MD, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Ectopic thyroid tissue at base of tongue (BOT) or floor of mouth (FOM)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Reporting Tips

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Caprio MG et al: Paediatric neck ultrasonography: a pictorial essay. J Ultrasound. ePub, 2018
                                        2. Hong HS et al: Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: a pictorial essay. Korean J Radiol. 16(2):419-29, 2015
                                        3. Zander DA et al: Imaging of ectopic thyroid tissue and thyroglossal duct cysts. Radiographics. 34(1):37-50, 2014
                                        4. Shatzkes DR: Lingual thyroid. In Harnsberger R et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head and Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. 1206, 2011
                                        5. Gupta M et al: Lingual thyroid. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E1, 2009
                                        6. Lai YT et al: Lingual thyroid. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(6):944-5, 2009
                                        7. Lin WN et al: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in an adolescent girl with hypertrophic lingual thyroid. Pediatr Pulmonol. 44(1):93-5, 2009
                                        8. McCoul ED et al: Concurrent lingual thyroid and undescended thyroglossal duct thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. Laryngoscope. 119(10):1937-40, 2009
                                        9. Rahbar R et al: Lingual thyroid in children: a rare clinical entity. Laryngoscope. 118(7):1174-9, 2008
                                        10. Arekapudi SR et al: Lingual thyroid. Pediatr Radiol. 37(9):940, 2007
                                        11. Kennedy TL et al: Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis. Laryngoscope. 117(11):1969-73, 2007
                                        12. Yoon JS et al: Clinical characteristics of ectopic thyroid in Korea. Thyroid. 17(11):1117-21, 2007
                                        13. Barnes TW et al: Obstructive lingual thyroid causing sleep apnea: a case report and review of the literature. Sleep Med. 5(6):605-7, 2004
                                        14. Schoen EJ et al: The key role of newborn thyroid scintigraphy with isotopic iodide (123I) in defining and managing congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics. 114(6):e683-8, 2004
                                        15. Aktolun C et al: Diagnosis of complete ectopic lingual thyroid with Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med. 26(11):933-5, 2001
                                        16. Danner C et al: Lingual thyroid: iodine 131: a viable treatment modality revisited. Am J Otolaryngol. 22(4):276-81, 2001
                                        17. Massine RE et al: Lingual thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid. 11(12):1191-6, 2001
                                        18. Takashima S et al: MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions. Acta Radiol. 42(4):376-82, 2001
                                        19. Lee CC et al: Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre. Neuroradiology. 40(5):335-7, 1998
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Ectopic thyroid tissue at base of tongue (BOT) or floor of mouth (FOM)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Caprio MG et al: Paediatric neck ultrasonography: a pictorial essay. J Ultrasound. ePub, 2018
                                                                              2. Hong HS et al: Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: a pictorial essay. Korean J Radiol. 16(2):419-29, 2015
                                                                              3. Zander DA et al: Imaging of ectopic thyroid tissue and thyroglossal duct cysts. Radiographics. 34(1):37-50, 2014
                                                                              4. Shatzkes DR: Lingual thyroid. In Harnsberger R et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head and Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. 1206, 2011
                                                                              5. Gupta M et al: Lingual thyroid. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E1, 2009
                                                                              6. Lai YT et al: Lingual thyroid. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(6):944-5, 2009
                                                                              7. Lin WN et al: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in an adolescent girl with hypertrophic lingual thyroid. Pediatr Pulmonol. 44(1):93-5, 2009
                                                                              8. McCoul ED et al: Concurrent lingual thyroid and undescended thyroglossal duct thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. Laryngoscope. 119(10):1937-40, 2009
                                                                              9. Rahbar R et al: Lingual thyroid in children: a rare clinical entity. Laryngoscope. 118(7):1174-9, 2008
                                                                              10. Arekapudi SR et al: Lingual thyroid. Pediatr Radiol. 37(9):940, 2007
                                                                              11. Kennedy TL et al: Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis. Laryngoscope. 117(11):1969-73, 2007
                                                                              12. Yoon JS et al: Clinical characteristics of ectopic thyroid in Korea. Thyroid. 17(11):1117-21, 2007
                                                                              13. Barnes TW et al: Obstructive lingual thyroid causing sleep apnea: a case report and review of the literature. Sleep Med. 5(6):605-7, 2004
                                                                              14. Schoen EJ et al: The key role of newborn thyroid scintigraphy with isotopic iodide (123I) in defining and managing congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics. 114(6):e683-8, 2004
                                                                              15. Aktolun C et al: Diagnosis of complete ectopic lingual thyroid with Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med. 26(11):933-5, 2001
                                                                              16. Danner C et al: Lingual thyroid: iodine 131: a viable treatment modality revisited. Am J Otolaryngol. 22(4):276-81, 2001
                                                                              17. Massine RE et al: Lingual thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid. 11(12):1191-6, 2001
                                                                              18. Takashima S et al: MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions. Acta Radiol. 42(4):376-82, 2001
                                                                              19. Lee CC et al: Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre. Neuroradiology. 40(5):335-7, 1998