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Embryology and Anatomy of the Brain
Anne Kennedy, MD
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TERMINOLOGY

  • Definitions

    • Rostral: Cranial (i.e., toward head end of embryo)
    • Caudal: Tail (i.e., toward sacral end of embryo)

MAJOR EMBRYOLOGIC EVENTS

  • Neurulation

    • Neuronal Proliferation

      • Histogenesis

        • Neuronal Migration

          • Myelination

            • Operculization

              • Gyral and Sulcal Development

                CEREBRUM, CEREBELLUM, AND VENTRICLES

                • Cerebral Hemispheres

                  • Cerebellum

                    • Ventricles

                      IMAGING ISSUES

                      • Protocol Advice

                        • Imaging Pitfalls

                          Selected References

                          1. Maiz N et al: Three-dimensional ultrasonography for advanced neurosonography (neurosofe-3D): validation of a brain volume acquisition guideline. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 100(1):84-90, 2021
                          2. Volpe N et al: First-trimester fetal neurosonography: technique and diagnostic potential. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 57(2):204-14, 2021
                          3. Malinger G et al: ISUOG Practice Guidelines (updated): sonographic examination of the fetal central nervous system. Part 1: performance of screening examination and indications for targeted neurosonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 56(3):476-84, 2020
                          4. Altmann R et al: Sonoembryology of the fetal posterior fossa at 11 + 3 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks on three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 36(8):731-7, 2016
                          5. Pooh RK et al: Novel application of three-dimensional HDlive imaging in prenatal diagnosis from the first trimester. J Perinat Med. 43(2):147-58, 2015
                          6. Blaas HG: Detection of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using ultrasound. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 28(3):341-53, 2014
                          7. Pooh RK: Neurosonoembryology by three-dimensional ultrasound. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 17(5):261-8, 2012
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          TERMINOLOGY

                          • Definitions

                            • Rostral: Cranial (i.e., toward head end of embryo)
                            • Caudal: Tail (i.e., toward sacral end of embryo)

                          MAJOR EMBRYOLOGIC EVENTS

                          • Neurulation

                            • Neuronal Proliferation

                              • Histogenesis

                                • Neuronal Migration

                                  • Myelination

                                    • Operculization

                                      • Gyral and Sulcal Development

                                        CEREBRUM, CEREBELLUM, AND VENTRICLES

                                        • Cerebral Hemispheres

                                          • Cerebellum

                                            • Ventricles

                                              IMAGING ISSUES

                                              • Protocol Advice

                                                • Imaging Pitfalls

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Maiz N et al: Three-dimensional ultrasonography for advanced neurosonography (neurosofe-3D): validation of a brain volume acquisition guideline. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 100(1):84-90, 2021
                                                  2. Volpe N et al: First-trimester fetal neurosonography: technique and diagnostic potential. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 57(2):204-14, 2021
                                                  3. Malinger G et al: ISUOG Practice Guidelines (updated): sonographic examination of the fetal central nervous system. Part 1: performance of screening examination and indications for targeted neurosonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 56(3):476-84, 2020
                                                  4. Altmann R et al: Sonoembryology of the fetal posterior fossa at 11 + 3 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks on three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 36(8):731-7, 2016
                                                  5. Pooh RK et al: Novel application of three-dimensional HDlive imaging in prenatal diagnosis from the first trimester. J Perinat Med. 43(2):147-58, 2015
                                                  6. Blaas HG: Detection of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using ultrasound. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 28(3):341-53, 2014
                                                  7. Pooh RK: Neurosonoembryology by three-dimensional ultrasound. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 17(5):261-8, 2012