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Enchondroma
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Solitary enchondroma, central chondroma
          • Definitions

            • Benign hyaline cartilage tumor originating in bone

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Image-Guided Biopsy

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Herget GW et al: Insights into enchondroma, enchondromatosis and the risk of secondary chondrosarcoma. Review of the literature with an emphasis on the clinical behaviour, radiology, malignant transformation and the follow up. Neoplasma. 61(4):365-78, 2014
                                          2. Sensarma A et al: Regression of an enchondroma: a case report and proposed etiology. Skeletal Radiol. ePub, 2014
                                          3. Choi BB et al: MR differentiation of low-grade chondrosarcoma from enchondroma. Clin Imaging. 37(3):542-7, 2013
                                          4. De Coninck T et al: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for differentiation between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma. Eur Radiol. 23(11):3140-52, 2013
                                          5. Landman AS et al: Loss of pRB and p107 disrupts cartilage development and promotes enchondroma formation. Oncogene. 32(40):4798-805, 2013
                                          6. Logie CI et al: Chondrosarcoma: a diagnostic imager's guide to decision making and patient management. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 17(2):101-15, 2013
                                          7. Bierry G et al: Enchondromas in children: imaging appearance with pathological correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 41(10):1223-9, 2012
                                          8. Douis H et al: Can MR imaging challenge the commonly accepted theory of the pathogenesis of solitary enchondroma of long bone? Skeletal Radiol. 41(12):1537-42, 2012
                                          9. Douis H et al: The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. I. Benign lesions. Skeletal Radiol. 41(10):1195-212, 2012
                                          10. Ferrer-Santacreu EM et al: Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria. J Oncol. 2012:437958, 2012
                                          11. Hong ED et al: Prevalence of shoulder enchondromas on routine MR imaging. Clin Imaging. 35(5):378-84, 2011
                                          12. Bui KL et al: Cortical scalloping and cortical penetration by small eccentric chondroid lesions in the long tubular bones: not a sign of malignancy? Skeletal Radiol. 38(8):791-6, 2009
                                          13. An YY et al: Enchondroma protuberans of the hand. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(1):40-4, 2008
                                          14. Walden MJ et al: Incidental enchondromas of the knee. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(6):1611-5, 2008
                                          15. Potter BK et al: Solitary epiphyseal enchondromas. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 87(7):1551-60, 2005
                                          16. Lucas DR et al. Chondromas: enchondroma, periosteal chondroma, and enchondromatosis. In Fletcher CDM et al: World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. Lyon: IARC Press. 237-9, 2002
                                          17. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Cartilaginous tumors: fast contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 214(2):539-46, 2000
                                          18. Murphey MD et al: Enchondroma versus chondrosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton: differentiating features. Radiographics. 18(5):1213-37; quiz 1244-5, 1998
                                          19. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Usefulness of radiography in differentiating enchondroma from central grade 1 chondrosarcoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(4):1097-104, 1997
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Solitary enchondroma, central chondroma
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Benign hyaline cartilage tumor originating in bone

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Herget GW et al: Insights into enchondroma, enchondromatosis and the risk of secondary chondrosarcoma. Review of the literature with an emphasis on the clinical behaviour, radiology, malignant transformation and the follow up. Neoplasma. 61(4):365-78, 2014
                                                                                  2. Sensarma A et al: Regression of an enchondroma: a case report and proposed etiology. Skeletal Radiol. ePub, 2014
                                                                                  3. Choi BB et al: MR differentiation of low-grade chondrosarcoma from enchondroma. Clin Imaging. 37(3):542-7, 2013
                                                                                  4. De Coninck T et al: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for differentiation between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma. Eur Radiol. 23(11):3140-52, 2013
                                                                                  5. Landman AS et al: Loss of pRB and p107 disrupts cartilage development and promotes enchondroma formation. Oncogene. 32(40):4798-805, 2013
                                                                                  6. Logie CI et al: Chondrosarcoma: a diagnostic imager's guide to decision making and patient management. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 17(2):101-15, 2013
                                                                                  7. Bierry G et al: Enchondromas in children: imaging appearance with pathological correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 41(10):1223-9, 2012
                                                                                  8. Douis H et al: Can MR imaging challenge the commonly accepted theory of the pathogenesis of solitary enchondroma of long bone? Skeletal Radiol. 41(12):1537-42, 2012
                                                                                  9. Douis H et al: The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. I. Benign lesions. Skeletal Radiol. 41(10):1195-212, 2012
                                                                                  10. Ferrer-Santacreu EM et al: Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria. J Oncol. 2012:437958, 2012
                                                                                  11. Hong ED et al: Prevalence of shoulder enchondromas on routine MR imaging. Clin Imaging. 35(5):378-84, 2011
                                                                                  12. Bui KL et al: Cortical scalloping and cortical penetration by small eccentric chondroid lesions in the long tubular bones: not a sign of malignancy? Skeletal Radiol. 38(8):791-6, 2009
                                                                                  13. An YY et al: Enchondroma protuberans of the hand. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(1):40-4, 2008
                                                                                  14. Walden MJ et al: Incidental enchondromas of the knee. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(6):1611-5, 2008
                                                                                  15. Potter BK et al: Solitary epiphyseal enchondromas. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 87(7):1551-60, 2005
                                                                                  16. Lucas DR et al. Chondromas: enchondroma, periosteal chondroma, and enchondromatosis. In Fletcher CDM et al: World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. Lyon: IARC Press. 237-9, 2002
                                                                                  17. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Cartilaginous tumors: fast contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 214(2):539-46, 2000
                                                                                  18. Murphey MD et al: Enchondroma versus chondrosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton: differentiating features. Radiographics. 18(5):1213-37; quiz 1244-5, 1998
                                                                                  19. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Usefulness of radiography in differentiating enchondroma from central grade 1 chondrosarcoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(4):1097-104, 1997