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Endocardial Cushion Defect
Carlos A. Rojas, MD; Suhny Abbara, MD, FACR, FSCCT
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Endocardial cushion defect (ECD)
            • Synonyms

              • Atrioventricular (AV) septal defect; AV canal (AVC) defect
              • Common AV canal (CAVC)
              • Common VA orifice
              • Atrioventricularis communis
            • Definitions

              • Broad spectrum of defects secondary to deficiency of structures that originate from endocardial cushions (AV septum and septal portions of AV valves)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Echocardiographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • CT Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Backer CL et al: Shunt lesions part I: patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and atrioventricular septal defect. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 17(8 Suppl 1):S302-9, 2016
                                        2. Calkoen EE et al: Atrioventricular septal defect: from embryonic development to long-term follow-up. Int J Cardiol. 202:784-95, 2016
                                        3. Rajiah P et al: Cardiac MRI: part 1, cardiovascular shunts. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(4):W603-20, 2011
                                        4. Oyama N et al: 64-Slice MDCT imaging of endocardial cushion defect associated with other cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(3):218-20, 2010
                                        5. Rojas CA et al: Embryology and developmental defects of the interatrial septum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(5):1100-4, 2010
                                        6. Ferguson EC et al: Classic imaging signs of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Radiographics. 27(5):1323-34, 2007
                                        7. Colletti PM: Evaluation of intracardiac shunts with cardiac magnetic resonance. Curr Cardiol Rep. 7(1):52-8, 2005
                                        8. Beerbaum P et al: Atrial septal defects in pediatric patients: noninvasive sizing with cardiovascular MR imaging. Radiology. 228(2):361-9, 2003
                                        9. Jacobs JP et al: Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project: atrioventricular canal defect. Ann Thorac Surg. 69(4 Suppl):S36-43, 2000
                                        10. Drinkwater DC Jr et al: Unbalanced atrioventricular septal defects. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 9(1):21-5, 1997
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Endocardial cushion defect (ECD)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Atrioventricular (AV) septal defect; AV canal (AVC) defect
                                                    • Common AV canal (CAVC)
                                                    • Common VA orifice
                                                    • Atrioventricularis communis
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Broad spectrum of defects secondary to deficiency of structures that originate from endocardial cushions (AV septum and septal portions of AV valves)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • Angiographic Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Backer CL et al: Shunt lesions part I: patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and atrioventricular septal defect. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 17(8 Suppl 1):S302-9, 2016
                                                                              2. Calkoen EE et al: Atrioventricular septal defect: from embryonic development to long-term follow-up. Int J Cardiol. 202:784-95, 2016
                                                                              3. Rajiah P et al: Cardiac MRI: part 1, cardiovascular shunts. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(4):W603-20, 2011
                                                                              4. Oyama N et al: 64-Slice MDCT imaging of endocardial cushion defect associated with other cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(3):218-20, 2010
                                                                              5. Rojas CA et al: Embryology and developmental defects of the interatrial septum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(5):1100-4, 2010
                                                                              6. Ferguson EC et al: Classic imaging signs of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Radiographics. 27(5):1323-34, 2007
                                                                              7. Colletti PM: Evaluation of intracardiac shunts with cardiac magnetic resonance. Curr Cardiol Rep. 7(1):52-8, 2005
                                                                              8. Beerbaum P et al: Atrial septal defects in pediatric patients: noninvasive sizing with cardiovascular MR imaging. Radiology. 228(2):361-9, 2003
                                                                              9. Jacobs JP et al: Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project: atrioventricular canal defect. Ann Thorac Surg. 69(4 Suppl):S36-43, 2000
                                                                              10. Drinkwater DC Jr et al: Unbalanced atrioventricular septal defects. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 9(1):21-5, 1997