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Endometrial Carcinoma
Barton F. Lane, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Endometrial carcinoma (EC)
              • Definitions

                • Malignant proliferation of abnormal endometrial glands
                  • Atypical irregular glands with multiple lumina
                  • Reduced stroma → "back to back" appearance of glands

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Kabil Kucur S et al: Role of endometrial power Doppler ultrasound using the international endometrial tumor analysis group classification in predicting intrauterine pathology. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 288(3):649-54, 2013
                                              2. Armstrong AJ et al: Diagnosis and management of endometrial hyperplasia. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 19(5):562-71, 2012
                                              3. Breijer MC et al: Capacity of endometrial thickness measurement to diagnose endometrial carcinoma in asymptomatic postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 40(6):621-9, 2012
                                              4. Van den Bosch T et al: Pre-sampling ultrasound evaluation and assessment of the tissue yield during sampling improves the diagnostic reliability of office endometrial biopsy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 32(2):173-6, 2012
                                              5. Jacobs I et al: Sensitivity of transvaginal ultrasound screening for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study within the UKCTOCS cohort. Lancet Oncol. 12(1):38-48, 2011
                                              6. Menzies R et al: Significance of abnormal sonographic findings in postmenopausal women with and without bleeding. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 33(9):944-51, 2011
                                              7. Odeh M et al: Three-dimensional endometrial volume and 3-dimensional power Doppler analysis in predicting endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 106(2):348-53, 2007
                                              8. Barwick TD et al: Imaging of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Clin Radiol. 61(7):545-55, 2006
                                              9. Kirby TO et al: Surgical staging in endometrial cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 20(1):45-50; discussion 50, 53-4, 63, 2006
                                              10. Kumar R et al: Positron emission tomography in gynecological malignancies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 6(7):1033-44, 2006
                                              11. Mercé LT et al: Endometrial volume and vascularity measurements by transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler angiography in stimulated and tumoral endometria: intraobserver reproducibility. Gynecol Oncol. 100(3):544-50, 2006
                                              12. Messiou C et al: MR staging of endometrial carcinoma. Clin Radiol. 61(10):822-32, 2006
                                              13. Rackow BW et al: Endometrial cancer and fertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 18(3):245-52, 2006
                                              14. Takeuchi M et al: Malignant transformation of pelvic endometriosis: MR imaging findings and pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 26(2):407-17, 2006
                                              15. Barranger E et al: Lymphatic mapping for gynecologic malignancies. Semin Oncol. 31(3):394-402, 2004
                                              16. Moodley M et al: Clinical pathway for the evaluation of postmenopausal bleeding with an emphasis on endometrial cancer detection. J Obstet Gynaecol. 24(7):736-41, 2004
                                              17. Tjalma WA et al: The clinical value and the cost-effectiveness of follow-up in endometrial cancer patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 14(5):931-7, 2004
                                              18. McMeekin DS et al: Endometrial cancer: treatment of nodal metastases. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 4(2):121-30, 2003
                                              19. Ascher SM et al: Imaging of cancer of the endometrium. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(3):563-76, 2002
                                              20. Sugimura K et al: Postsurgical pelvis: treatment follow-up. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(3):659-80, viii, 2002
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Endometrial carcinoma (EC)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Malignant proliferation of abnormal endometrial glands
                                                              • Atypical irregular glands with multiple lumina
                                                              • Reduced stroma → "back to back" appearance of glands

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Kabil Kucur S et al: Role of endometrial power Doppler ultrasound using the international endometrial tumor analysis group classification in predicting intrauterine pathology. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 288(3):649-54, 2013
                                                                                          2. Armstrong AJ et al: Diagnosis and management of endometrial hyperplasia. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 19(5):562-71, 2012
                                                                                          3. Breijer MC et al: Capacity of endometrial thickness measurement to diagnose endometrial carcinoma in asymptomatic postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 40(6):621-9, 2012
                                                                                          4. Van den Bosch T et al: Pre-sampling ultrasound evaluation and assessment of the tissue yield during sampling improves the diagnostic reliability of office endometrial biopsy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 32(2):173-6, 2012
                                                                                          5. Jacobs I et al: Sensitivity of transvaginal ultrasound screening for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study within the UKCTOCS cohort. Lancet Oncol. 12(1):38-48, 2011
                                                                                          6. Menzies R et al: Significance of abnormal sonographic findings in postmenopausal women with and without bleeding. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 33(9):944-51, 2011
                                                                                          7. Odeh M et al: Three-dimensional endometrial volume and 3-dimensional power Doppler analysis in predicting endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 106(2):348-53, 2007
                                                                                          8. Barwick TD et al: Imaging of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Clin Radiol. 61(7):545-55, 2006
                                                                                          9. Kirby TO et al: Surgical staging in endometrial cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 20(1):45-50; discussion 50, 53-4, 63, 2006
                                                                                          10. Kumar R et al: Positron emission tomography in gynecological malignancies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 6(7):1033-44, 2006
                                                                                          11. Mercé LT et al: Endometrial volume and vascularity measurements by transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler angiography in stimulated and tumoral endometria: intraobserver reproducibility. Gynecol Oncol. 100(3):544-50, 2006
                                                                                          12. Messiou C et al: MR staging of endometrial carcinoma. Clin Radiol. 61(10):822-32, 2006
                                                                                          13. Rackow BW et al: Endometrial cancer and fertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 18(3):245-52, 2006
                                                                                          14. Takeuchi M et al: Malignant transformation of pelvic endometriosis: MR imaging findings and pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 26(2):407-17, 2006
                                                                                          15. Barranger E et al: Lymphatic mapping for gynecologic malignancies. Semin Oncol. 31(3):394-402, 2004
                                                                                          16. Moodley M et al: Clinical pathway for the evaluation of postmenopausal bleeding with an emphasis on endometrial cancer detection. J Obstet Gynaecol. 24(7):736-41, 2004
                                                                                          17. Tjalma WA et al: The clinical value and the cost-effectiveness of follow-up in endometrial cancer patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 14(5):931-7, 2004
                                                                                          18. McMeekin DS et al: Endometrial cancer: treatment of nodal metastases. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 4(2):121-30, 2003
                                                                                          19. Ascher SM et al: Imaging of cancer of the endometrium. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(3):563-76, 2002
                                                                                          20. Sugimura K et al: Postsurgical pelvis: treatment follow-up. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(3):659-80, viii, 2002