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Endometrial Polyps
Maryam Rezvani, MD; Jeffrey Dee Olpin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Localized hyperplastic growth of irregularly distributed endometrial glands and stroma

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Nijkang NP et al: Endometrial polyps: pathogenesis, sequelae and treatment. SAGE Open Med. 7:2050312119848247, 2019
                                        2. Fadl SA et al: Diagnosing polyps on transvaginal sonography: is sonohysterography always necessary? Ultrasound Q. 34(4):272-7, 2018
                                        3. Anioł M et al: Usefulness of saline infusion sonohysterography and feeding artery imaging in endometrial polyp diagnosis. Ginekol Pol. 88(6):285-8, 2017
                                        4. Fang L et al: Value of 3-dimensional and power Doppler sonography for diagnosis of endometrial polyps. J Ultrasound Med. 32(2):247-55, 2013
                                        5. Kabil Kucur S et al: Role of endometrial power Doppler ultrasound using the international endometrial tumor analysis group classification in predicting intrauterine pathology. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 288(3):649-54, 2013
                                        6. Hase S et al: Endometrial polyps: MR imaging features. Acta Med Okayama. 66(6):475-85, 2012
                                        7. Salim S et al: Diagnosis and management of endometrial polyps: a critical review of the literature. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 18(5):569-81, 2011
                                        8. Van Den Bosch T et al: Effect of gel-instillation sonography on Doppler ultrasound findings in endometrial polyps. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 38(3):355-9, 2011
                                        9. Cil AP et al: Power Doppler properties of endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids: a preliminary observational study in women with known intracavitary lesions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(2):233-7, 2010
                                        10. Steinkeler JA et al: Female infertility: a systematic approach to radiologic imaging and diagnosis. Radiographics. 29(5):1353-70, 2009
                                        11. Tamura-Sadamori R et al: The sonohysterographic difference in submucosal uterine fibroids and endometrial polyps treated by hysteroscopic surgery. J Ultrasound Med. 26(7):941-6; quiz 947-8, 2007
                                        12. Valenzano MM et al: The value of sonohysterography in detecting intracavitary benign abnormalities. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 272(4):265-8, 2005
                                        13. Davis PC et al: Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial and subendometrial conditions. Radiographics. 22(4):803-16, 2002
                                        14. Goldstein SR et al: Evaluation of endometrial polyps. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 186(4):669-74, 2002
                                        15. Jorizzo JR et al: Endometrial polyps: sonohysterographic evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(3):617-21, 2001
                                        16. Caspi B et al: The bright edge of the endometrial polyp. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(4):327-30, 2000
                                        17. Dijkhuizen FP et al: Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and saline infusion sonography for the detection of intracavitary abnormalities in premenopausal women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(5):372-6, 2000
                                        18. Grasel RP et al: Endometrial polyps: MR imaging features and distinction from endometrial carcinoma. Radiology. 214(1):47-52, 2000
                                        19. Strauss HG et al: Significance of endovaginal ultrasonography in assessing tamoxifen-associated changes of the endometrium. A prospective study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 79(8):697-701, 2000
                                        20. Baldwin MT et al: Focal intracavitary masses recognized with the hyperechoic line sign at endovaginal US and characterized with hysterosonography. Radiographics. 19(4):927-35, 1999
                                        21. Farrell T et al: The significance of an 'insufficient' Pipelle sample in the investigation of post-menopausal bleeding. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 78(9):810-2, 1999
                                        22. La Torre R et al: Transvaginal sonographic evaluation of endometrial polyps: a comparison with two dimensional and three dimensional contrast sonography. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 26(3-4):171-3, 1999
                                        23. Laifer-Narin SL et al: Transvaginal saline hysterosonography: characteristics distinguishing malignant and various benign conditions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(6):1513-20, 1999
                                        24. Senoh D et al: Clinical application of intrauterine sonography with high-frequency, real-time miniature transducer in gynecologic disorders. Preliminary report. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 47(2):108-13, 1999
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Localized hyperplastic growth of irregularly distributed endometrial glands and stroma

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Nijkang NP et al: Endometrial polyps: pathogenesis, sequelae and treatment. SAGE Open Med. 7:2050312119848247, 2019
                                                                              2. Fadl SA et al: Diagnosing polyps on transvaginal sonography: is sonohysterography always necessary? Ultrasound Q. 34(4):272-7, 2018
                                                                              3. Anioł M et al: Usefulness of saline infusion sonohysterography and feeding artery imaging in endometrial polyp diagnosis. Ginekol Pol. 88(6):285-8, 2017
                                                                              4. Fang L et al: Value of 3-dimensional and power Doppler sonography for diagnosis of endometrial polyps. J Ultrasound Med. 32(2):247-55, 2013
                                                                              5. Kabil Kucur S et al: Role of endometrial power Doppler ultrasound using the international endometrial tumor analysis group classification in predicting intrauterine pathology. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 288(3):649-54, 2013
                                                                              6. Hase S et al: Endometrial polyps: MR imaging features. Acta Med Okayama. 66(6):475-85, 2012
                                                                              7. Salim S et al: Diagnosis and management of endometrial polyps: a critical review of the literature. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 18(5):569-81, 2011
                                                                              8. Van Den Bosch T et al: Effect of gel-instillation sonography on Doppler ultrasound findings in endometrial polyps. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 38(3):355-9, 2011
                                                                              9. Cil AP et al: Power Doppler properties of endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids: a preliminary observational study in women with known intracavitary lesions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(2):233-7, 2010
                                                                              10. Steinkeler JA et al: Female infertility: a systematic approach to radiologic imaging and diagnosis. Radiographics. 29(5):1353-70, 2009
                                                                              11. Tamura-Sadamori R et al: The sonohysterographic difference in submucosal uterine fibroids and endometrial polyps treated by hysteroscopic surgery. J Ultrasound Med. 26(7):941-6; quiz 947-8, 2007
                                                                              12. Valenzano MM et al: The value of sonohysterography in detecting intracavitary benign abnormalities. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 272(4):265-8, 2005
                                                                              13. Davis PC et al: Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial and subendometrial conditions. Radiographics. 22(4):803-16, 2002
                                                                              14. Goldstein SR et al: Evaluation of endometrial polyps. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 186(4):669-74, 2002
                                                                              15. Jorizzo JR et al: Endometrial polyps: sonohysterographic evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(3):617-21, 2001
                                                                              16. Caspi B et al: The bright edge of the endometrial polyp. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(4):327-30, 2000
                                                                              17. Dijkhuizen FP et al: Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and saline infusion sonography for the detection of intracavitary abnormalities in premenopausal women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(5):372-6, 2000
                                                                              18. Grasel RP et al: Endometrial polyps: MR imaging features and distinction from endometrial carcinoma. Radiology. 214(1):47-52, 2000
                                                                              19. Strauss HG et al: Significance of endovaginal ultrasonography in assessing tamoxifen-associated changes of the endometrium. A prospective study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 79(8):697-701, 2000
                                                                              20. Baldwin MT et al: Focal intracavitary masses recognized with the hyperechoic line sign at endovaginal US and characterized with hysterosonography. Radiographics. 19(4):927-35, 1999
                                                                              21. Farrell T et al: The significance of an 'insufficient' Pipelle sample in the investigation of post-menopausal bleeding. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 78(9):810-2, 1999
                                                                              22. La Torre R et al: Transvaginal sonographic evaluation of endometrial polyps: a comparison with two dimensional and three dimensional contrast sonography. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 26(3-4):171-3, 1999
                                                                              23. Laifer-Narin SL et al: Transvaginal saline hysterosonography: characteristics distinguishing malignant and various benign conditions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(6):1513-20, 1999
                                                                              24. Senoh D et al: Clinical application of intrauterine sonography with high-frequency, real-time miniature transducer in gynecologic disorders. Preliminary report. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 47(2):108-13, 1999