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Enlarged Lingual Tonsils
Mantosh S. Rattan, MD; Lane F. Donnelly, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Chronic idiopathic enlargement of lingual tonsils (lymphoid tissue at base of tongue) contributing to obstruction of retroglossal airway

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Treatment

                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                            • Consider

                              Selected References

                              1. Cielo CM et al: Treatment options for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 46(1):27-33, 2016
                              2. Suzuki J et al: Congenital vallecular cyst in an infant: case report and review of 52 recent cases. J Laryngol Otol. 125(11):1199-203, 2011
                              3. Donnelly LF: Magnetic resonance sleep studies in the evaluation of children with obstructive sleep apnea. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 31(2):107-15, 2010
                              4. Wootten CT et al: Evolving therapies to treat retroglossal and base-of-tongue obstruction in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(10):983-7, 2010
                              5. Guimaraes CV et al: The frequency of lingual tonsil enlargement in obese children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(4):973-5, 2008
                              6. Enoz M: UPPP failure due to lingual tonsils and epiglottal laxity. Sleep Med. 7(8):660-1, 2006
                              7. Fricke BL et al: Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls. Pediatr Radiol. 36(6):518-23, 2006
                              8. Kluszynski BA et al: Lingual tonsillectomy in a child with obstructive sleep apnea: a novel technique. Laryngoscope. 116(4):668-9, 2006
                              9. Maturo SC et al: Submucosal minimally invasive lingual excision: an effective, novel surgery for pediatric tongue base reduction. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 115(8):624-30, 2006
                              10. Donnelly LF: Obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric patients: evaluation with cine MR sleep studies. Radiology. 236(3):768-78, 2005
                              11. Donnelly LF et al: Causes of persistent obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children with down syndrome as depicted on static and dynamic cine MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(1):175-81, 2004
                              12. Shott SR et al: Cine magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of persistent airway obstruction after tonsil and adenoidectomy in children with Down syndrome. Laryngoscope. 114(10):1724-9, 2004
                              13. Conache ID et al: Tracheostomy, lingular tonsillectomy and sleep-related breathing disorders. Br J Anaesth. 88(5):724-6, 2002
                              14. Dündar A et al: Lingual tonsil hypertrophy producing obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 106(9 Pt 1):1167-9, 1996
                              15. Woodson BT et al: Clinical experience with lingualplasty as part of the treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 107(1):40-8, 1992
                              16. Riley R et al: Mandibular osteotomy and hyoid bone advancement for obstructive sleep apnea: a case report. Sleep. 7(1):79-82, 1984
                              17. Pediatric Sleep Surgery
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Imaging

                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Definitions

                                        • Chronic idiopathic enlargement of lingual tonsils (lymphoid tissue at base of tongue) contributing to obstruction of retroglossal airway

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                          • CT Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Demographics

                                                      • Treatment

                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                        • Consider

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Cielo CM et al: Treatment options for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 46(1):27-33, 2016
                                                          2. Suzuki J et al: Congenital vallecular cyst in an infant: case report and review of 52 recent cases. J Laryngol Otol. 125(11):1199-203, 2011
                                                          3. Donnelly LF: Magnetic resonance sleep studies in the evaluation of children with obstructive sleep apnea. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 31(2):107-15, 2010
                                                          4. Wootten CT et al: Evolving therapies to treat retroglossal and base-of-tongue obstruction in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(10):983-7, 2010
                                                          5. Guimaraes CV et al: The frequency of lingual tonsil enlargement in obese children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(4):973-5, 2008
                                                          6. Enoz M: UPPP failure due to lingual tonsils and epiglottal laxity. Sleep Med. 7(8):660-1, 2006
                                                          7. Fricke BL et al: Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls. Pediatr Radiol. 36(6):518-23, 2006
                                                          8. Kluszynski BA et al: Lingual tonsillectomy in a child with obstructive sleep apnea: a novel technique. Laryngoscope. 116(4):668-9, 2006
                                                          9. Maturo SC et al: Submucosal minimally invasive lingual excision: an effective, novel surgery for pediatric tongue base reduction. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 115(8):624-30, 2006
                                                          10. Donnelly LF: Obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric patients: evaluation with cine MR sleep studies. Radiology. 236(3):768-78, 2005
                                                          11. Donnelly LF et al: Causes of persistent obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children with down syndrome as depicted on static and dynamic cine MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(1):175-81, 2004
                                                          12. Shott SR et al: Cine magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of persistent airway obstruction after tonsil and adenoidectomy in children with Down syndrome. Laryngoscope. 114(10):1724-9, 2004
                                                          13. Conache ID et al: Tracheostomy, lingular tonsillectomy and sleep-related breathing disorders. Br J Anaesth. 88(5):724-6, 2002
                                                          14. Dündar A et al: Lingual tonsil hypertrophy producing obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 106(9 Pt 1):1167-9, 1996
                                                          15. Woodson BT et al: Clinical experience with lingualplasty as part of the treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 107(1):40-8, 1992
                                                          16. Riley R et al: Mandibular osteotomy and hyoid bone advancement for obstructive sleep apnea: a case report. Sleep. 7(1):79-82, 1984
                                                          17. Pediatric Sleep Surgery