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Epiglottitis
Michael R. Aquino, MD, MHSc
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Supraglottitis
        • Definitions

          • Airway obstruction secondary to inflammation of epiglottis & surrounding tissues

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Almuzam S et al: Non-vaccine Haemophilus influenzae type a epiglottitis. J Paediatr Child Health. 57(7):1133-5, 2020
                                    2. Bozzella MJ et al: Epiglottitis associated with intermittent e-cigarette use: the vagaries of vaping toxicity. Pediatrics. 145(3), 2020
                                    3. Fondaw A et al: COVID-19 infection presenting with acute epiglottitis. J Surg Case Rep. 2020(9):rjaa280, 2020
                                    4. Gottlieb M et al: Ultrasound for airway management: an evidence-based review for the emergency clinician. Am J Emerg Med. 38(5):1007-13, 2020
                                    5. Sideris A et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of predictors of airway intervention in adult epiglottitis. Laryngoscope. 130(2):465-73, 2020
                                    6. Villemure-Poliquin N et al: Necrotizing epiglottitis with necrotizing fasciitis in a child: a case report and review of literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 138:110385, 2020
                                    7. Inaguma Y et al: Thermal epiglottitis: acute airway obstruction caused by ingestion of hot food. Pediatr Int. 61(9):927-9, 2019
                                    8. OʼBryant SC et al: Influenza A-associated epiglottitis and compensatory pursed lip breathing in an infant. Pediatr Emerg Care. 35(11):e213-6, 2019
                                    9. Ho ML et al: The ABCs (airway, blood vessels, and compartments) of pediatric neck infections and masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1-10, 2016
                                    10. Lichtor JL et al: Epiglottitis: it hasn't gone away. Anesthesiology. 124(6):1404-7, 2016
                                    11. Darras KE et al: Imaging acute airway obstruction in infants and children. Radiographics. 35(7):2064-79, 2015
                                    12. Ko DR et al: Use of bedside sonography for diagnosing acute epiglottitis in the emergency department: a preliminary study. J Ultrasound Med. 31(1):19-22, 2012
                                    13. Ito K et al: Four cases of acute epiglottitis with a peritonsillar abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx. 38(2):284-8, 2011
                                    14. Briem B et al: [Acute epiglottitis in Iceland from 1983-2005.] Laeknabladid. 96(6):405-11, 2010
                                    15. Capps EF et al: Emergency imaging assessment of acute, nontraumatic conditions of the head and neck. Radiographics. 30(5):1335-52, 2010
                                    16. Shah RK et al: Epiglottitis in the United States: national trends, variances, prognosis, and management. Laryngoscope. 120(6):1256-62, 2010
                                    17. Glynn F et al: Diagnosis and management of supraglottitis (epiglottitis). Curr Infect Dis Rep. 10(3):200-4, 2008
                                    18. Guldfred LA et al: Acute epiglottitis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome. J Laryngol Otol. 122(8):818-23, 2008
                                    19. Baines PB et al: Upper airway obstruction. Hosp Med. 65(2):108-11, 2004
                                    20. Gilbert A et al: Epiglottic abscess. Ear Nose Throat J. 83(3):154-5, 2004
                                    21. Hammer J: Acquired upper airway obstruction. Paediatr Respir Rev. 5(1):25-33, 2004
                                    22. Krost WS: Pediatric pulmonary emergencies. Emerg Med Serv. 33(1):71-7; quiz 105, 2004
                                    23. McVernon J et al: Trends in Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in adults in England and Wales: surveillance study. BMJ. 329(7467):655-8, 2004
                                    24. Shah RK et al: Epiglottitis in the Hemophilus influenzae type B vaccine era: changing trends. Laryngoscope. 114(3):557-60, 2004
                                    25. Berger G et al: The rising incidence of adult acute epiglottitis and epiglottic abscess. Am J Otolaryngol. 24(6):374-83, 2003
                                    26. Garner D et al: Effectiveness of vaccination for Haemophilus influenzae type b. Lancet. 361(9355):395-6, 2003
                                    27. McEwan J et al: Paediatric acute epiglottitis: not a disappearing entity. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 67(4):317-21, 2003
                                    28. McVernon J et al: Immunologic memory in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine failure. Arch Dis Child. 88(5):379-83, 2003
                                    29. Nakamura H et al: Acute epiglottitis: a review of 80 patients. J Laryngol Otol. 115(1):31-4, 2001
                                    30. Stroud RH et al: An update on inflammatory disorders of the pediatric airway: epiglottitis, croup, and tracheitis. Am J Otolaryngol. 22(4):268-75, 2001
                                    31. John SD et al: Stridor and upper airway obstruction in infants and children. Radiographics. 12(4):625-43; discussion 644, 1992
                                    32. Dunbar JS: Upper respiratory tract obstruction in infants and children. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 109(2):227-46, 1970
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Supraglottitis
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Airway obstruction secondary to inflammation of epiglottis & surrounding tissues

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Almuzam S et al: Non-vaccine Haemophilus influenzae type a epiglottitis. J Paediatr Child Health. 57(7):1133-5, 2020
                                                                      2. Bozzella MJ et al: Epiglottitis associated with intermittent e-cigarette use: the vagaries of vaping toxicity. Pediatrics. 145(3), 2020
                                                                      3. Fondaw A et al: COVID-19 infection presenting with acute epiglottitis. J Surg Case Rep. 2020(9):rjaa280, 2020
                                                                      4. Gottlieb M et al: Ultrasound for airway management: an evidence-based review for the emergency clinician. Am J Emerg Med. 38(5):1007-13, 2020
                                                                      5. Sideris A et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of predictors of airway intervention in adult epiglottitis. Laryngoscope. 130(2):465-73, 2020
                                                                      6. Villemure-Poliquin N et al: Necrotizing epiglottitis with necrotizing fasciitis in a child: a case report and review of literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 138:110385, 2020
                                                                      7. Inaguma Y et al: Thermal epiglottitis: acute airway obstruction caused by ingestion of hot food. Pediatr Int. 61(9):927-9, 2019
                                                                      8. OʼBryant SC et al: Influenza A-associated epiglottitis and compensatory pursed lip breathing in an infant. Pediatr Emerg Care. 35(11):e213-6, 2019
                                                                      9. Ho ML et al: The ABCs (airway, blood vessels, and compartments) of pediatric neck infections and masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1-10, 2016
                                                                      10. Lichtor JL et al: Epiglottitis: it hasn't gone away. Anesthesiology. 124(6):1404-7, 2016
                                                                      11. Darras KE et al: Imaging acute airway obstruction in infants and children. Radiographics. 35(7):2064-79, 2015
                                                                      12. Ko DR et al: Use of bedside sonography for diagnosing acute epiglottitis in the emergency department: a preliminary study. J Ultrasound Med. 31(1):19-22, 2012
                                                                      13. Ito K et al: Four cases of acute epiglottitis with a peritonsillar abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx. 38(2):284-8, 2011
                                                                      14. Briem B et al: [Acute epiglottitis in Iceland from 1983-2005.] Laeknabladid. 96(6):405-11, 2010
                                                                      15. Capps EF et al: Emergency imaging assessment of acute, nontraumatic conditions of the head and neck. Radiographics. 30(5):1335-52, 2010
                                                                      16. Shah RK et al: Epiglottitis in the United States: national trends, variances, prognosis, and management. Laryngoscope. 120(6):1256-62, 2010
                                                                      17. Glynn F et al: Diagnosis and management of supraglottitis (epiglottitis). Curr Infect Dis Rep. 10(3):200-4, 2008
                                                                      18. Guldfred LA et al: Acute epiglottitis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome. J Laryngol Otol. 122(8):818-23, 2008
                                                                      19. Baines PB et al: Upper airway obstruction. Hosp Med. 65(2):108-11, 2004
                                                                      20. Gilbert A et al: Epiglottic abscess. Ear Nose Throat J. 83(3):154-5, 2004
                                                                      21. Hammer J: Acquired upper airway obstruction. Paediatr Respir Rev. 5(1):25-33, 2004
                                                                      22. Krost WS: Pediatric pulmonary emergencies. Emerg Med Serv. 33(1):71-7; quiz 105, 2004
                                                                      23. McVernon J et al: Trends in Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in adults in England and Wales: surveillance study. BMJ. 329(7467):655-8, 2004
                                                                      24. Shah RK et al: Epiglottitis in the Hemophilus influenzae type B vaccine era: changing trends. Laryngoscope. 114(3):557-60, 2004
                                                                      25. Berger G et al: The rising incidence of adult acute epiglottitis and epiglottic abscess. Am J Otolaryngol. 24(6):374-83, 2003
                                                                      26. Garner D et al: Effectiveness of vaccination for Haemophilus influenzae type b. Lancet. 361(9355):395-6, 2003
                                                                      27. McEwan J et al: Paediatric acute epiglottitis: not a disappearing entity. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 67(4):317-21, 2003
                                                                      28. McVernon J et al: Immunologic memory in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine failure. Arch Dis Child. 88(5):379-83, 2003
                                                                      29. Nakamura H et al: Acute epiglottitis: a review of 80 patients. J Laryngol Otol. 115(1):31-4, 2001
                                                                      30. Stroud RH et al: An update on inflammatory disorders of the pediatric airway: epiglottitis, croup, and tracheitis. Am J Otolaryngol. 22(4):268-75, 2001
                                                                      31. John SD et al: Stridor and upper airway obstruction in infants and children. Radiographics. 12(4):625-43; discussion 644, 1992
                                                                      32. Dunbar JS: Upper respiratory tract obstruction in infants and children. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 109(2):227-46, 1970