link
Bookmarks
Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula
Steven J. Kraus, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology.Try it free - 15 days
0
5
5
1

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Esophageal atresia (EA): Congenital occlusion of upper esophagus
              • Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF): Single (less commonly multiple), anomalous, congenital connection(s) from esophagus to trachea

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • CT Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Urík M et al: Videofluoroscopic swallow study in diagnostics of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula in children. Ear Nose Throat J. ePub, 2021
                                                2. Nakayama DK: The history of surgery for esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 55(7):1414-9, 2020
                                                3. Pardy C et al: Prenatal detection of esophageal atresia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 98(6):689-99, 2019
                                                4. Slater BJ et al: Use of magnets as a minimally invasive approach for anastomosis in esophageal atresia: long-term outcomes. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 29(10):1202-6, 2019
                                                5. Forero Zapata L et al: Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. N Engl J Med. 379(7):e11, 2018
                                                6. Higano NS et al: Pre- and post-operative visualization of neonatal esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula via magnetic resonance imaging. J Pediatr Surg Case Rep. 29:5-8, 2018
                                                7. Tracy S et al: The distended fetal hypopharynx: a sensitive and novel sign for the prenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 53(6):1137-41, 2018
                                                8. Woo R et al: Magnetic compression stricturoplasty for treatment of refractory esophageal strictures in children: technique and lessons learned. Surg Innov. 24(5):432-9, 2017
                                                9. Teague WJ et al: Surgical management of oesophageal atresia. Paediatr Respir Rev. 19:10-5, 2016
                                                10. Muensterer OJ et al: From Vogt to Haight and Holt to now: the history of esophageal atresia over the last century. Pediatr Radiol. 45(8):1230-5, 2015
                                                11. Yalcin S et al: The evaluation of deglutition with videofluoroscopy after repair of esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 50(11):1823-7, 2015
                                                12. Liszewski MC et al: Imaging of long gap esophageal atresia and the Foker process: expected findings and complications. Pediatr Radiol. 44(4):467-75, 2014
                                                13. Smith N: Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Early Hum Dev. 90(12):947-50, 2014
                                                14. Zani A et al: International survey on the management of esophageal atresia. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 24(1):3-8, 2014
                                                15. Kuti K et al: A rare pitfall in the diagnosis of oesophageal atresia. Pediatr Radiol. 43(8):902-4, 2013
                                                16. Sodhi KS et al: Postoperative appearances of esophageal atresia repair: retrospective study of 210 patients with review of literature - what the radiologist should know. Acta Radiol. 54(2):221-5, 2013
                                                17. Thyoka M et al: Balloon dilatation of anastomotic strictures secondary to surgical repair of oesophageal atresia: a systematic review. Pediatr Radiol. 43(8):898-901; quiz 896-7, 2013
                                                18. Mahalik SK et al: Role of preoperative 3D CT reconstruction for evaluation of patients with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Pediatr Surg Int. 28(10):961-6, 2012
                                                19. Burjonrappa S et al: Type A esophageal atresia: a critical review of management strategies at a single center. J Pediatr Surg. 45(5):865-71, 2010
                                                20. Serhal L et al: Anastomotic stricture after surgical repair of esophageal atresia: frequency, risk factors, and efficacy of esophageal bougie dilatations. J Pediatr Surg. 45(7):1459-62, 2010
                                                21. Knight RB et al: Pharyngeal perforation masquerading as esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 44(11):2216-8, 2009
                                                22. Mortell AE et al: Esophageal atresia repair with thoracotomy: the Cincinnati contemporary experience. Semin Pediatr Surg. 18(1):12-9, 2009
                                                23. Stoll C et al: Associated malformations in patients with esophageal atresia. Eur J Med Genet. 52(5):287-90, 2009
                                                24. Houben CH et al: Current status of prenatal diagnosis, operative management and outcome of esophageal atresia/tracheo-esophageal fistula. Prenat Diagn. 28(7):667-75, 2008
                                                25. Achildi O et al: Congenital anomalies of the esophagus. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 40(1):219-44, viii, 2007
                                                26. Kovesi T et al: Long-term complications of congenital esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest. 126(3):915-25, 2004
                                                27. Orford J et al: Advances in the treatment of oesophageal atresia over three decades: the 1970s and the 1990s. Pediatr Surg Int. 20(6):402-7, 2004
                                                28. Crabbe DC: Isolated tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Paediatr Respir Rev. 4(1):74-8, 2003
                                                29. Dahms BB: The Gastrointestinal Tract. In Stocker et al: Pediatric Pathology. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 633-34, 2001
                                                30. Clark DC: Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Am Fam Physician. 59(4):910-6, 919-20, 1999
                                                31. De Felice C et al: Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung associated with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Pediatr Surg Int. 15(3-4):260-3, 1999
                                                32. Imaizumi K et al: Association of microphthalmia with esophageal atresia: report of two new patients and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet. 87(2):180-2, 1999
                                                33. del Rosario JF et al: Common pediatric esophageal disorders. Gastroenterologist. 6(2):104-21, 1998
                                                34. Thakral CL et al: Concurrent right diaphragmatic hernia and esophageal atresia. Pediatr Surg Int. 14(1-2):96-7, 1998
                                                35. al-Salem AH et al: Concurrent left congenital diaphragmatic hernia and esophageal atresia: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg. 32(5):772-4, 1997
                                                36. Sapin E et al: Coexisting left congenital diaphragmatic hernia and esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula: successful management in a premature neonate. J Pediatr Surg. 31(7):989-91, 1996
                                                37. Snyder CL et al: Esophageal duplication cyst with esophageal web and tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 31(7):968-9, 1996
                                                38. Benjamin B et al: Diagnosis of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 26(6):667-71, 1991
                                                39. Berdon WE et al: Radiographic findings in esophageal atresia with proximal pouch fistula (type B). Pediatr Radiol. 3(2):70-4, 1975
                                                40. Kirkpatrick JA et al: A complex of anomalies associated with tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 95:208-11, 1965
                                                Related Anatomy
                                                Loading...
                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
                                                Loading...
                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Esophageal atresia (EA): Congenital occlusion of upper esophagus
                                                            • Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF): Single (less commonly multiple), anomalous, congenital connection(s) from esophagus to trachea

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • CT Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Urík M et al: Videofluoroscopic swallow study in diagnostics of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula in children. Ear Nose Throat J. ePub, 2021
                                                                                              2. Nakayama DK: The history of surgery for esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 55(7):1414-9, 2020
                                                                                              3. Pardy C et al: Prenatal detection of esophageal atresia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 98(6):689-99, 2019
                                                                                              4. Slater BJ et al: Use of magnets as a minimally invasive approach for anastomosis in esophageal atresia: long-term outcomes. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 29(10):1202-6, 2019
                                                                                              5. Forero Zapata L et al: Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. N Engl J Med. 379(7):e11, 2018
                                                                                              6. Higano NS et al: Pre- and post-operative visualization of neonatal esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula via magnetic resonance imaging. J Pediatr Surg Case Rep. 29:5-8, 2018
                                                                                              7. Tracy S et al: The distended fetal hypopharynx: a sensitive and novel sign for the prenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 53(6):1137-41, 2018
                                                                                              8. Woo R et al: Magnetic compression stricturoplasty for treatment of refractory esophageal strictures in children: technique and lessons learned. Surg Innov. 24(5):432-9, 2017
                                                                                              9. Teague WJ et al: Surgical management of oesophageal atresia. Paediatr Respir Rev. 19:10-5, 2016
                                                                                              10. Muensterer OJ et al: From Vogt to Haight and Holt to now: the history of esophageal atresia over the last century. Pediatr Radiol. 45(8):1230-5, 2015
                                                                                              11. Yalcin S et al: The evaluation of deglutition with videofluoroscopy after repair of esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 50(11):1823-7, 2015
                                                                                              12. Liszewski MC et al: Imaging of long gap esophageal atresia and the Foker process: expected findings and complications. Pediatr Radiol. 44(4):467-75, 2014
                                                                                              13. Smith N: Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Early Hum Dev. 90(12):947-50, 2014
                                                                                              14. Zani A et al: International survey on the management of esophageal atresia. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 24(1):3-8, 2014
                                                                                              15. Kuti K et al: A rare pitfall in the diagnosis of oesophageal atresia. Pediatr Radiol. 43(8):902-4, 2013
                                                                                              16. Sodhi KS et al: Postoperative appearances of esophageal atresia repair: retrospective study of 210 patients with review of literature - what the radiologist should know. Acta Radiol. 54(2):221-5, 2013
                                                                                              17. Thyoka M et al: Balloon dilatation of anastomotic strictures secondary to surgical repair of oesophageal atresia: a systematic review. Pediatr Radiol. 43(8):898-901; quiz 896-7, 2013
                                                                                              18. Mahalik SK et al: Role of preoperative 3D CT reconstruction for evaluation of patients with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Pediatr Surg Int. 28(10):961-6, 2012
                                                                                              19. Burjonrappa S et al: Type A esophageal atresia: a critical review of management strategies at a single center. J Pediatr Surg. 45(5):865-71, 2010
                                                                                              20. Serhal L et al: Anastomotic stricture after surgical repair of esophageal atresia: frequency, risk factors, and efficacy of esophageal bougie dilatations. J Pediatr Surg. 45(7):1459-62, 2010
                                                                                              21. Knight RB et al: Pharyngeal perforation masquerading as esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 44(11):2216-8, 2009
                                                                                              22. Mortell AE et al: Esophageal atresia repair with thoracotomy: the Cincinnati contemporary experience. Semin Pediatr Surg. 18(1):12-9, 2009
                                                                                              23. Stoll C et al: Associated malformations in patients with esophageal atresia. Eur J Med Genet. 52(5):287-90, 2009
                                                                                              24. Houben CH et al: Current status of prenatal diagnosis, operative management and outcome of esophageal atresia/tracheo-esophageal fistula. Prenat Diagn. 28(7):667-75, 2008
                                                                                              25. Achildi O et al: Congenital anomalies of the esophagus. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 40(1):219-44, viii, 2007
                                                                                              26. Kovesi T et al: Long-term complications of congenital esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest. 126(3):915-25, 2004
                                                                                              27. Orford J et al: Advances in the treatment of oesophageal atresia over three decades: the 1970s and the 1990s. Pediatr Surg Int. 20(6):402-7, 2004
                                                                                              28. Crabbe DC: Isolated tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Paediatr Respir Rev. 4(1):74-8, 2003
                                                                                              29. Dahms BB: The Gastrointestinal Tract. In Stocker et al: Pediatric Pathology. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 633-34, 2001
                                                                                              30. Clark DC: Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Am Fam Physician. 59(4):910-6, 919-20, 1999
                                                                                              31. De Felice C et al: Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung associated with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Pediatr Surg Int. 15(3-4):260-3, 1999
                                                                                              32. Imaizumi K et al: Association of microphthalmia with esophageal atresia: report of two new patients and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet. 87(2):180-2, 1999
                                                                                              33. del Rosario JF et al: Common pediatric esophageal disorders. Gastroenterologist. 6(2):104-21, 1998
                                                                                              34. Thakral CL et al: Concurrent right diaphragmatic hernia and esophageal atresia. Pediatr Surg Int. 14(1-2):96-7, 1998
                                                                                              35. al-Salem AH et al: Concurrent left congenital diaphragmatic hernia and esophageal atresia: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg. 32(5):772-4, 1997
                                                                                              36. Sapin E et al: Coexisting left congenital diaphragmatic hernia and esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula: successful management in a premature neonate. J Pediatr Surg. 31(7):989-91, 1996
                                                                                              37. Snyder CL et al: Esophageal duplication cyst with esophageal web and tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 31(7):968-9, 1996
                                                                                              38. Benjamin B et al: Diagnosis of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 26(6):667-71, 1991
                                                                                              39. Berdon WE et al: Radiographic findings in esophageal atresia with proximal pouch fistula (type B). Pediatr Radiol. 3(2):70-4, 1975
                                                                                              40. Kirkpatrick JA et al: A complex of anomalies associated with tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 95:208-11, 1965