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Esophageal Cancer
Fathima Fijula P. Manzil, MD; Paula Vergara-Wentland, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)
          • Definitions

            • Squamous cell carcinoma
              • Malignant transformation of squamous epithelium
            • Adenocarcinoma
              • Arises from columnar epithelium (Barrett mucosa)
            • Other rare types: Small cell carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, melanoma
            • Esophageal cancers are defined as having epicenter within esophagus, within gastroesophageal junction, or ≤ 2 cm into proximal stomach

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                Selected References

                                1. Escrig Sos J et al: The 8th edition of the AJCC-TNM classification: new contributions to the staging of esophagogastric junction cancer. Cir Esp. 97(8):432-7, 2019
                                2. Fatima N et al: Staging and response evaluation to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal cancers using 18FDG PET/ CT with standardized protocol. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 20(7):2003-8, 2019
                                3. Ajani JA et al: Esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancers, version 1.2015. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 13(2):194-227, 2015
                                4. Calais J et al: High FDG uptake areas on pre-radiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 42(6):858-67, 2015
                                5. Goense L et al: Diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG and PET/CT for the detection of recurrent esophageal cancer after treatment with curative intent: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nucl Med. 56(7):995-1002, 2015
                                6. Kukar M et al: Role of repeat 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examination in predicting pathologic response following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. JAMA Surg. 150(6):555-62, 2015
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Abbreviations

                                          • Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Squamous cell carcinoma
                                            • Malignant transformation of squamous epithelium
                                          • Adenocarcinoma
                                            • Arises from columnar epithelium (Barrett mucosa)
                                          • Other rare types: Small cell carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, melanoma
                                          • Esophageal cancers are defined as having epicenter within esophagus, within gastroesophageal junction, or ≤ 2 cm into proximal stomach

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Presentation

                                                      • Demographics

                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Escrig Sos J et al: The 8th edition of the AJCC-TNM classification: new contributions to the staging of esophagogastric junction cancer. Cir Esp. 97(8):432-7, 2019
                                                              2. Fatima N et al: Staging and response evaluation to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal cancers using 18FDG PET/ CT with standardized protocol. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 20(7):2003-8, 2019
                                                              3. Ajani JA et al: Esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancers, version 1.2015. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 13(2):194-227, 2015
                                                              4. Calais J et al: High FDG uptake areas on pre-radiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 42(6):858-67, 2015
                                                              5. Goense L et al: Diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG and PET/CT for the detection of recurrent esophageal cancer after treatment with curative intent: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nucl Med. 56(7):995-1002, 2015
                                                              6. Kukar M et al: Role of repeat 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examination in predicting pathologic response following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. JAMA Surg. 150(6):555-62, 2015