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Esophageal Carcinoma
Atif Zaheer, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa): Malignant transformation of squamous epithelium
          • Adenocarcinoma: Malignant dysplasia in columnar metaplasia (Barrett mucosa)

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Elsherif SB et al: Role of precision imaging in esophageal cancer. J Thorac Dis. 12(9):5159-76, 2020
                                            2. Wang QL et al: Global time trends in the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Epidemiol. 10:717-28, 2018
                                            3. Rice TW et al: 8th edition AJCC/UICC staging of cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: application to clinical practice. Ann Cardiothorac Surg. 6(2):119-30, 2017
                                            4. Griffin Y: Esophageal cancer: role of imaging in primary staging and response assessment post neoadjuvant therapy. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 37(4):339-51, 2016
                                            5. Karashima R et al: Advantages of FDG-PET/CT over CT alone in the preoperative assessment of lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer. Surg Today. 45(4):471-7, 2014
                                            6. Napier KJ et al: Esophageal cancer: a Review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, staging workup and treatment modalities. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 6(5):112-20, 2014
                                            7. Lewis RB et al: From the radiologic pathology archives: esophageal neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 33(4):1083-108, 2013
                                            8. Bird-Lieberman EL et al: Early diagnosis of oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer. 101(1):1-6, 2009
                                            9. Herszényi L et al: Diagnosis and recognition of early esophageal neoplasia. Dig Dis. 27(1):24-30, 2009
                                            10. Gupta S et al: Usefulness of barium studies for differentiating benign and malignant strictures of the esophagus. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(3):737-44, 2003
                                            11. Klein CA et al: Lessons from an aggressive cancer: evolutionary dynamics in esophageal carcinoma. Cancer Res. 69(13):5285-8, 2009
                                            12. Lee PC et al: Predictors of long-term survival after resection of esophageal carcinoma with nonregional nodal metastases. Ann Thorac Surg. 88(1):186-92; discussion 192-3, 2009
                                            13. Malin E et al: Multimodality treatment for esophageal malignancy: the roles of surgery and neoadjuvant therapy. Am Surg. 75(6):489-97, 2009
                                            14. Morganstern B et al: GERD and Barrett's esophagus: diagnostic and management strategies in the geriatric population. Geriatrics. 64(7):9-12, 2009
                                            15. Iyer RB et al: Diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of esophageal cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(3):785-93, 2003
                                            16. Levine MS et al: Carcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: sensitivity of radiographic diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 168(6):1423-6, 1997
                                            17. Levine MS: Esophageal cancer. Radiologic diagnosis. Radiol Clin North Am. 35(2):265-79, 1997
                                            18. Levine MS et al: Fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus: clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings in 16 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(4):781-7, 1996
                                            19. Glick SN: Barium studies in patients with Barrett's esophagus: importance of focal areas of esophageal deformity. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 163(1):65-7, 1994
                                            20. Vilgrain V et al: Staging of esophageal carcinoma: comparison of results with endoscopic sonography and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 155(2):277-81, 1990
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa): Malignant transformation of squamous epithelium
                                                    • Adenocarcinoma: Malignant dysplasia in columnar metaplasia (Barrett mucosa)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Elsherif SB et al: Role of precision imaging in esophageal cancer. J Thorac Dis. 12(9):5159-76, 2020
                                                                                      2. Wang QL et al: Global time trends in the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Epidemiol. 10:717-28, 2018
                                                                                      3. Rice TW et al: 8th edition AJCC/UICC staging of cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: application to clinical practice. Ann Cardiothorac Surg. 6(2):119-30, 2017
                                                                                      4. Griffin Y: Esophageal cancer: role of imaging in primary staging and response assessment post neoadjuvant therapy. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 37(4):339-51, 2016
                                                                                      5. Karashima R et al: Advantages of FDG-PET/CT over CT alone in the preoperative assessment of lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer. Surg Today. 45(4):471-7, 2014
                                                                                      6. Napier KJ et al: Esophageal cancer: a Review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, staging workup and treatment modalities. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 6(5):112-20, 2014
                                                                                      7. Lewis RB et al: From the radiologic pathology archives: esophageal neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 33(4):1083-108, 2013
                                                                                      8. Bird-Lieberman EL et al: Early diagnosis of oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer. 101(1):1-6, 2009
                                                                                      9. Herszényi L et al: Diagnosis and recognition of early esophageal neoplasia. Dig Dis. 27(1):24-30, 2009
                                                                                      10. Gupta S et al: Usefulness of barium studies for differentiating benign and malignant strictures of the esophagus. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(3):737-44, 2003
                                                                                      11. Klein CA et al: Lessons from an aggressive cancer: evolutionary dynamics in esophageal carcinoma. Cancer Res. 69(13):5285-8, 2009
                                                                                      12. Lee PC et al: Predictors of long-term survival after resection of esophageal carcinoma with nonregional nodal metastases. Ann Thorac Surg. 88(1):186-92; discussion 192-3, 2009
                                                                                      13. Malin E et al: Multimodality treatment for esophageal malignancy: the roles of surgery and neoadjuvant therapy. Am Surg. 75(6):489-97, 2009
                                                                                      14. Morganstern B et al: GERD and Barrett's esophagus: diagnostic and management strategies in the geriatric population. Geriatrics. 64(7):9-12, 2009
                                                                                      15. Iyer RB et al: Diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of esophageal cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(3):785-93, 2003
                                                                                      16. Levine MS et al: Carcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: sensitivity of radiographic diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 168(6):1423-6, 1997
                                                                                      17. Levine MS: Esophageal cancer. Radiologic diagnosis. Radiol Clin North Am. 35(2):265-79, 1997
                                                                                      18. Levine MS et al: Fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus: clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings in 16 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(4):781-7, 1996
                                                                                      19. Glick SN: Barium studies in patients with Barrett's esophagus: importance of focal areas of esophageal deformity. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 163(1):65-7, 1994
                                                                                      20. Vilgrain V et al: Staging of esophageal carcinoma: comparison of results with endoscopic sonography and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 155(2):277-81, 1990