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Esophageal Strictures
Alexander J. Towbin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Acquired narrowing of esophagus from variety of entities
          • Congenital causes of stenosis considered here as well

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • Fluoroscopic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Hoffman RS et al: Ingestion of caustic substances. N Engl J Med. 382(18):1739-48, 2020
                                  2. Alterio T et al: Eosinophilic esophagitis in children: current knowledge to open new horizons. Scand J Gastroenterol. 54(7):822-9, 2019
                                  3. Bruzzi M et al: Emergency computed tomography predicts caustic esophageal stricture formation. Ann Surg. 270(1):109-14, 2019
                                  4. Anderson BT et al: Approach and safety of esophageal dilation for treatment of strictures in children with epidermolysis bullosa. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 67(6):701-5, 2018
                                  5. Ghiselli A et al: Endoscopic dilation in pediatric esophageal strictures: a literature review. Acta Biomed. 89(8-S):27-32, 2018
                                  6. Krom H et al: Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children. Eur J Pediatr. 177(7):1063-70, 2018
                                  7. Macchini F et al: Classification of esophageal strictures following esophageal atresia repair. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 28(3):243-9, 2018
                                  8. Mahawongkajit P et al: Risk factors for esophageal stricture in grade 2b and 3a corrosive esophageal injuries. J Gastrointest Surg. 22(10):1659-64, 2018
                                  9. Arnold M et al: Caustic ingestion in children-A review. Semin Pediatr Surg. 26(2):95-104, 2017
                                  10. Terui K et al: Endoscopic management for congenital esophageal stenosis: a systematic review. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 7(3):183-91, 2015
                                  11. Diniz LO et al: Fluoroscopic findings in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Pediatr Radiol. 42(6):721-7, 2012
                                  12. Diniz LO et al: Causes of esophageal food bolus impaction in the pediatric population. Dig Dis Sci. 57(3):690-3, 2012
                                  13. Pearson EG et al: Reflux esophageal stricture--a review of 30 years' experience in children. J Pediatr Surg. 45(12):2356-60, 2010
                                  14. Youn BJ et al: Balloon dilatation for corrosive esophageal strictures in children: radiologic and clinical outcomes. Korean J Radiol. 11(2):203-10, 2010
                                  15. Lilja HE et al: Outcome in neonates with esophageal atresia treated over the last 20 years. Pediatr Surg Int. 24(5):531-6, 2008
                                  16. Miller RS et al: Chronic esophageal foreign bodies in pediatric patients: a retrospective review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 68(3):265-72, 2004
                                  17. Noel RJ et al: Eosinophilic esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 351(9):940-1, 2004
                                  18. Chiou CC et al: Esophageal candidiasis in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: clinical manifestations and risk factors. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 19(8):729-34, 2000
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Definitions

                                          • Acquired narrowing of esophagus from variety of entities
                                          • Congenital causes of stenosis considered here as well

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                            • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Hoffman RS et al: Ingestion of caustic substances. N Engl J Med. 382(18):1739-48, 2020
                                                                  2. Alterio T et al: Eosinophilic esophagitis in children: current knowledge to open new horizons. Scand J Gastroenterol. 54(7):822-9, 2019
                                                                  3. Bruzzi M et al: Emergency computed tomography predicts caustic esophageal stricture formation. Ann Surg. 270(1):109-14, 2019
                                                                  4. Anderson BT et al: Approach and safety of esophageal dilation for treatment of strictures in children with epidermolysis bullosa. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 67(6):701-5, 2018
                                                                  5. Ghiselli A et al: Endoscopic dilation in pediatric esophageal strictures: a literature review. Acta Biomed. 89(8-S):27-32, 2018
                                                                  6. Krom H et al: Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children. Eur J Pediatr. 177(7):1063-70, 2018
                                                                  7. Macchini F et al: Classification of esophageal strictures following esophageal atresia repair. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 28(3):243-9, 2018
                                                                  8. Mahawongkajit P et al: Risk factors for esophageal stricture in grade 2b and 3a corrosive esophageal injuries. J Gastrointest Surg. 22(10):1659-64, 2018
                                                                  9. Arnold M et al: Caustic ingestion in children-A review. Semin Pediatr Surg. 26(2):95-104, 2017
                                                                  10. Terui K et al: Endoscopic management for congenital esophageal stenosis: a systematic review. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 7(3):183-91, 2015
                                                                  11. Diniz LO et al: Fluoroscopic findings in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Pediatr Radiol. 42(6):721-7, 2012
                                                                  12. Diniz LO et al: Causes of esophageal food bolus impaction in the pediatric population. Dig Dis Sci. 57(3):690-3, 2012
                                                                  13. Pearson EG et al: Reflux esophageal stricture--a review of 30 years' experience in children. J Pediatr Surg. 45(12):2356-60, 2010
                                                                  14. Youn BJ et al: Balloon dilatation for corrosive esophageal strictures in children: radiologic and clinical outcomes. Korean J Radiol. 11(2):203-10, 2010
                                                                  15. Lilja HE et al: Outcome in neonates with esophageal atresia treated over the last 20 years. Pediatr Surg Int. 24(5):531-6, 2008
                                                                  16. Miller RS et al: Chronic esophageal foreign bodies in pediatric patients: a retrospective review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 68(3):265-72, 2004
                                                                  17. Noel RJ et al: Eosinophilic esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 351(9):940-1, 2004
                                                                  18. Chiou CC et al: Esophageal candidiasis in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: clinical manifestations and risk factors. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 19(8):729-34, 2000