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Esophageal Strictures
Alexander J. Towbin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Acquired narrowing of esophagus from variety of entities
          • Congenital causes of stenosis considered here as well

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • Fluoroscopic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Cakmak M et al: Endoscopic balloon dilatation of benign esophageal strictures in childhood: a 15-year experience. Dis Esophagus. 29(2):179-84, 2016
                                  2. Dall'Oglio L et al: Endoscopic management of esophageal stenosis in children: New and traditional treatments. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 8(4):212-9, 2016
                                  3. Manfredi MA: Endoscopic management of anastomotic esophageal strictures secondary to esophageal atresia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 26(1):201-19, 2016
                                  4. Nice T et al: Risk factors for stricture formation after esophageal atresia repair. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 26(5):393-8, 2016
                                  5. Reinberg O: Esophageal replacements in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ePub, 2016
                                  6. Terui K et al: Endoscopic management for congenital esophageal stenosis: A systematic review. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 7(3):183-91, 2015
                                  7. Diniz LO et al: Fluoroscopic findings in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Pediatr Radiol. 42(6):721-7, 2012
                                  8. Diniz LO et al: Causes of esophageal food bolus impaction in the pediatric population. Dig Dis Sci. 57(3):690-3, 2012
                                  9. Gottschalk A et al: Anesthesia for balloon dilatation of esophageal strictures in children with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica: from intubation to sedation. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 23(4):518-22, 2010
                                  10. Pearson EG et al: Reflux esophageal stricture--a review of 30 years' experience in children. J Pediatr Surg. 45(12):2356-60, 2010
                                  11. Youn BJ et al: Balloon dilatation for corrosive esophageal strictures in children: radiologic and clinical outcomes. Korean J Radiol. 11(2):203-10, 2010
                                  12. Riffat F et al: Pediatric caustic ingestion: 50 consecutive cases and a review of the literature. Dis Esophagus. 22(1):89-94, 2009
                                  13. Lilja HE et al: Outcome in neonates with esophageal atresia treated over the last 20 years. Pediatr Surg Int. 24(5):531-6, 2008
                                  14. Miller RS et al: Chronic esophageal foreign bodies in pediatric patients: a retrospective review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 68(3):265-72, 2004
                                  15. Noel RJ et al: Eosinophilic esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 351(9):940-1, 2004
                                  16. Lao J et al: Esophageal food impaction in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 19(6):402-7, 2003
                                  17. Chiou CC et al: Esophageal candidiasis in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: clinical manifestations and risk factors. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 19(8):729-34, 2000
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Definitions

                                          • Acquired narrowing of esophagus from variety of entities
                                          • Congenital causes of stenosis considered here as well

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                            • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Cakmak M et al: Endoscopic balloon dilatation of benign esophageal strictures in childhood: a 15-year experience. Dis Esophagus. 29(2):179-84, 2016
                                                                  2. Dall'Oglio L et al: Endoscopic management of esophageal stenosis in children: New and traditional treatments. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 8(4):212-9, 2016
                                                                  3. Manfredi MA: Endoscopic management of anastomotic esophageal strictures secondary to esophageal atresia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 26(1):201-19, 2016
                                                                  4. Nice T et al: Risk factors for stricture formation after esophageal atresia repair. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 26(5):393-8, 2016
                                                                  5. Reinberg O: Esophageal replacements in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ePub, 2016
                                                                  6. Terui K et al: Endoscopic management for congenital esophageal stenosis: A systematic review. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 7(3):183-91, 2015
                                                                  7. Diniz LO et al: Fluoroscopic findings in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Pediatr Radiol. 42(6):721-7, 2012
                                                                  8. Diniz LO et al: Causes of esophageal food bolus impaction in the pediatric population. Dig Dis Sci. 57(3):690-3, 2012
                                                                  9. Gottschalk A et al: Anesthesia for balloon dilatation of esophageal strictures in children with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica: from intubation to sedation. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 23(4):518-22, 2010
                                                                  10. Pearson EG et al: Reflux esophageal stricture--a review of 30 years' experience in children. J Pediatr Surg. 45(12):2356-60, 2010
                                                                  11. Youn BJ et al: Balloon dilatation for corrosive esophageal strictures in children: radiologic and clinical outcomes. Korean J Radiol. 11(2):203-10, 2010
                                                                  12. Riffat F et al: Pediatric caustic ingestion: 50 consecutive cases and a review of the literature. Dis Esophagus. 22(1):89-94, 2009
                                                                  13. Lilja HE et al: Outcome in neonates with esophageal atresia treated over the last 20 years. Pediatr Surg Int. 24(5):531-6, 2008
                                                                  14. Miller RS et al: Chronic esophageal foreign bodies in pediatric patients: a retrospective review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 68(3):265-72, 2004
                                                                  15. Noel RJ et al: Eosinophilic esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 351(9):940-1, 2004
                                                                  16. Lao J et al: Esophageal food impaction in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 19(6):402-7, 2003
                                                                  17. Chiou CC et al: Esophageal candidiasis in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: clinical manifestations and risk factors. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 19(8):729-34, 2000