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Esthesioneuroblastoma
Yoshimi Anzai, MD, MPH
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB)
            • Synonyms

              • Olfactory neuroblastoma, pleomorphic olfactory neuroblastoma
            • Definitions

              • Rare, malignant, neuroectodermal sinonasal (SN) tumor

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Saade RE et al: Prognosis and biology in esthesioneuroblastoma: the emerging role of Hyams grading system. Curr Oncol Rep. 17(1):423, 2015
                                              2. Tajudeen BA et al: Importance of tumor grade in esthesioneuroblastoma survival: a population-based analysis. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12):1124-9, 2014
                                              3. Kaur G et al: The prognostic implications of Hyam's subtype for patients with Kadish stage C esthesioneuroblastoma. J Clin Neurosci. 20(2):281-6, 2013
                                              4. Papacharalampous GX et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): towards minimally invasive surgery and multi-modality treatment strategies - an updated critical review of the current literature. J BUON. 18(3):557-63, 2013
                                              5. Broski SM et al: The added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of patients with esthesioneuroblastoma. J Nucl Med. 53(8):1200-6, 2012
                                              6. Howell MC et al: Patterns of regional spread for esthesioneuroblastoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(5):929-33, 2011
                                              7. Platek ME et al: Improved survival following surgery and radiation therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma: analysis of the SEER database. Radiat Oncol. 6:41, 2011
                                              8. Zanation AM et al: When, how and why to treat the neck in patients with esthesioneuroblastoma: a review. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 267(11):1667-71, 2010
                                              9. Bragg TM et al: Clinicopathological review: esthesioneuroblastoma. Neurosurgery. 64(4):764-70; discussion 770, 2009
                                              10. Devaiah AK et al: Treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma: a 16-year meta-analysis of 361 patients. Laryngoscope. 119(7):1412-6, 2009
                                              11. Faragalla H et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma: a review and update. Adv Anat Pathol. 16(5):322-31, 2009
                                              12. Gore MR et al: Salvage treatment of late neck metastasis in esthesioneuroblastoma: a meta-analysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(10):1030-4, 2009
                                              13. Tseng J et al: Peripheral cysts: a distinguishing feature of esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E14, 2009
                                              14. Ward PD et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: results and outcomes of a single institution's experience. Skull Base. 19(2):133-40, 2009
                                              15. Yu T et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma methods of intracranial extension: CT and MR imaging findings. Neuroradiology. 51(12):841-50, 2009
                                              16. Capelle L et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report of diffuse subdural recurrence and review of recently published studies. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 52(1):85-90, 2008
                                              17. Nichols AC et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: the massachusetts eye and ear infirmary and massachusetts general hospital experience with craniofacial resection, proton beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Skull Base. 18(5):327-37, 2008
                                              18. Zollinger LV et al: Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis from esthesioneuroblastoma: a review of the therapeutic and prognostic implications. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(8):1561-3, 2008
                                              19. Emerson LL et al: Pleomorphic olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): histopathological findings and clinical course. Histopathology. 51(3):430-2, 2007
                                              20. Jethanamest D et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: a population-based analysis of survival and prognostic factors. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 133(3):276-80, 2007
                                              21. McLean JN et al: Combined modality therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(6):998-1002, 2007
                                              22. Nguyen BD et al: F-18 FDG PET/CT staging and posttherapeutic assessment of esthesioneuroblastoma. Clin Nucl Med. 31(3):172-4, 2006
                                              23. Constantinidis J et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma: the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg experience 1975-2000. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 130(5):567-74, 2004
                                              24. Loevner LA et al: Imaging of neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 10(3): 467-93, 2002
                                              25. Yousem DM et al: Imaging of the olfactory system. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 22(6): 456-72, 2001
                                              26. Pickuth D et al: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of olfactory neuroblastoma: an analysis of 22 cases. Clin Otolaryngol. 24(5): 457-61, 1999
                                              27. Castillo M et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the olfactory apparatus. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 8(2): 80-6, 1996
                                              28. Derdeyn CP et al: MRI of esthesioneuroblastoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 18(1): 16-21, 1994
                                              29. Schuster JJ et al: MR of esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) and appearance after craniofacial resection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(6): 1169-77, 1994
                                              30. Som PM et al: Sinonasal esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension: marginal tumor cysts as a diagnostic MR finding. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(7):1259-62, 1994
                                              31. Li C et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma: MR evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(5): 1167-71, 1993
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Olfactory neuroblastoma, pleomorphic olfactory neuroblastoma
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Rare, malignant, neuroectodermal sinonasal (SN) tumor

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  • Angiographic Findings

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Saade RE et al: Prognosis and biology in esthesioneuroblastoma: the emerging role of Hyams grading system. Curr Oncol Rep. 17(1):423, 2015
                                                                                          2. Tajudeen BA et al: Importance of tumor grade in esthesioneuroblastoma survival: a population-based analysis. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(12):1124-9, 2014
                                                                                          3. Kaur G et al: The prognostic implications of Hyam's subtype for patients with Kadish stage C esthesioneuroblastoma. J Clin Neurosci. 20(2):281-6, 2013
                                                                                          4. Papacharalampous GX et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): towards minimally invasive surgery and multi-modality treatment strategies - an updated critical review of the current literature. J BUON. 18(3):557-63, 2013
                                                                                          5. Broski SM et al: The added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of patients with esthesioneuroblastoma. J Nucl Med. 53(8):1200-6, 2012
                                                                                          6. Howell MC et al: Patterns of regional spread for esthesioneuroblastoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(5):929-33, 2011
                                                                                          7. Platek ME et al: Improved survival following surgery and radiation therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma: analysis of the SEER database. Radiat Oncol. 6:41, 2011
                                                                                          8. Zanation AM et al: When, how and why to treat the neck in patients with esthesioneuroblastoma: a review. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 267(11):1667-71, 2010
                                                                                          9. Bragg TM et al: Clinicopathological review: esthesioneuroblastoma. Neurosurgery. 64(4):764-70; discussion 770, 2009
                                                                                          10. Devaiah AK et al: Treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma: a 16-year meta-analysis of 361 patients. Laryngoscope. 119(7):1412-6, 2009
                                                                                          11. Faragalla H et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma: a review and update. Adv Anat Pathol. 16(5):322-31, 2009
                                                                                          12. Gore MR et al: Salvage treatment of late neck metastasis in esthesioneuroblastoma: a meta-analysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(10):1030-4, 2009
                                                                                          13. Tseng J et al: Peripheral cysts: a distinguishing feature of esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension. Ear Nose Throat J. 88(6):E14, 2009
                                                                                          14. Ward PD et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: results and outcomes of a single institution's experience. Skull Base. 19(2):133-40, 2009
                                                                                          15. Yu T et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma methods of intracranial extension: CT and MR imaging findings. Neuroradiology. 51(12):841-50, 2009
                                                                                          16. Capelle L et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report of diffuse subdural recurrence and review of recently published studies. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 52(1):85-90, 2008
                                                                                          17. Nichols AC et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: the massachusetts eye and ear infirmary and massachusetts general hospital experience with craniofacial resection, proton beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Skull Base. 18(5):327-37, 2008
                                                                                          18. Zollinger LV et al: Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis from esthesioneuroblastoma: a review of the therapeutic and prognostic implications. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(8):1561-3, 2008
                                                                                          19. Emerson LL et al: Pleomorphic olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): histopathological findings and clinical course. Histopathology. 51(3):430-2, 2007
                                                                                          20. Jethanamest D et al: Esthesioneuroblastoma: a population-based analysis of survival and prognostic factors. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 133(3):276-80, 2007
                                                                                          21. McLean JN et al: Combined modality therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(6):998-1002, 2007
                                                                                          22. Nguyen BD et al: F-18 FDG PET/CT staging and posttherapeutic assessment of esthesioneuroblastoma. Clin Nucl Med. 31(3):172-4, 2006
                                                                                          23. Constantinidis J et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma: the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg experience 1975-2000. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 130(5):567-74, 2004
                                                                                          24. Loevner LA et al: Imaging of neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 10(3): 467-93, 2002
                                                                                          25. Yousem DM et al: Imaging of the olfactory system. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 22(6): 456-72, 2001
                                                                                          26. Pickuth D et al: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of olfactory neuroblastoma: an analysis of 22 cases. Clin Otolaryngol. 24(5): 457-61, 1999
                                                                                          27. Castillo M et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the olfactory apparatus. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 8(2): 80-6, 1996
                                                                                          28. Derdeyn CP et al: MRI of esthesioneuroblastoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 18(1): 16-21, 1994
                                                                                          29. Schuster JJ et al: MR of esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) and appearance after craniofacial resection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(6): 1169-77, 1994
                                                                                          30. Som PM et al: Sinonasal esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension: marginal tumor cysts as a diagnostic MR finding. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(7):1259-62, 1994
                                                                                          31. Li C et al: Olfactory neuroblastoma: MR evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(5): 1167-71, 1993