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Evolving Subdural Hematoma
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Charles Raybaud, MD, FRCPC; A. James Barkovich, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Evolving subdural hematoma (SDH)
            • Definitions

              • Diverse presentations of SDH according to timing, dilution, recurrence of bleed

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Asan Z: Growth potential of subdural hematomas under clinical observation: which subdural hematomas tend to grow and why they do. World Neurosurg. 113:e598-603, 2018
                                      2. Gekat W et al: SDH and EDH in children up to 18 years of age-a clinical collective in the view of forensic considerations. Int J Legal Med. 132(6):1719-27, 2018
                                      3. Pasarikovski CR et al: Delayed chronic subdural hematoma after total cranial vault reconstruction for sagittal synostosis. Pediatr Neurosurg. 53(3):200-4, 2018
                                      4. Foster KA et al: Factors associated with hemispheric hypodensity after subdural hematoma following abusive head trauma in children. J Neurotrauma. 31(19):1625-31, 2014
                                      5. Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn T et al: Age determination of subdural hematomas with CT and MRI: a systematic review. Eur J Radiol. 83(7):1257-68, 2014
                                      6. Bradford R et al: Serial neuroimaging in infants with abusive head trauma: timing abusive injuries. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 12(2):110-9, 2013
                                      7. Chotai S et al: Brain herniation induced by drainage of subdural hematoma in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Asian J Neurosurg. 8(2):112-5, 2013
                                      8. McKeag H et al: Subdural hemorrhage in pediatric patients with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 11(4):438-44, 2013
                                      9. Son S et al: Natural course of initially non-operated cases of acute subdural hematoma: the risk factors of hematoma progression. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 54(3):211-9, 2013
                                      10. Hobbs C et al: Subdural haematoma and effusion in infancy: an epidemiological study. Arch Dis Child. 90(9):952-5, 2005
                                      11. Vinchon M et al: Imaging of head injuries in infants: temporal correlates and forensic implications for the diagnosis of child abuse. J Neurosurg. 101(1 Suppl):44-52, 2004
                                      12. Hymel KP et al: Intracranial hemorrhage and rebleeding in suspected victims of abusive head trauma: addressing the forensic controversies. Child Maltreat. 7(4):329-48, 2002
                                      13. Loh JK et al: Acute subdural hematoma in infancy. Surg Neurol. 58(3-4):218-24, 2002
                                      14. Feldman KW et al: The cause of infant and toddler subdural hemorrhage: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 108(3):636-46, 2001
                                      15. Lee KS et al: The fate of traumatic subdural hygroma in serial computed tomographic scans. J Korean Med Sci. 15(5):560-8, 2000
                                      16. Mori K et al: Delayed magnetic resonance imaging with GdD-DTPA differentiates subdural hygroma and subdural effusion. Surg Neurol. 53(4):303-10; discussion 310-1, 2000
                                      17. Sharma RR et al: Symptomatic calcified subdural hematomas. Pediatr Neurosurg. 31(3):150-4, 1999
                                      18. Dias MS et al: Serial radiography in the infant shaken impact syndrome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 29(2):77-85, 1998
                                      19. Fujisawa H et al: Serum protein exudation in chronic subdural haematomas: a mechanism for haematoma enlargement? Acta Neurochir (Wien). 140(2):161-5; discussion 165-6, 1998
                                      20. Lee KS et al: The computed tomographic attenuation and the age of subdural hematomas. J Korean Med Sci. 12(4):353-9, 1997
                                      21. Park CK et al: Spontaneous evolution of posttraumatic subdural hygroma into chronic subdural haematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 127(1-2):41-7, 1994
                                      22. Destian S et al: Differentiation between meningeal fibrosis and chronic subdural hematoma after ventricular shunting: value of enhanced CT and MR scans. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 10(5):1021-6, 1989
                                      23. Ohno K et al: Role of traumatic subdural fluid collection in developing process of chronic subdural hematoma. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ. 33(3):99-106, 1986
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Evolving subdural hematoma (SDH)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Diverse presentations of SDH according to timing, dilution, recurrence of bleed

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Asan Z: Growth potential of subdural hematomas under clinical observation: which subdural hematomas tend to grow and why they do. World Neurosurg. 113:e598-603, 2018
                                                                          2. Gekat W et al: SDH and EDH in children up to 18 years of age-a clinical collective in the view of forensic considerations. Int J Legal Med. 132(6):1719-27, 2018
                                                                          3. Pasarikovski CR et al: Delayed chronic subdural hematoma after total cranial vault reconstruction for sagittal synostosis. Pediatr Neurosurg. 53(3):200-4, 2018
                                                                          4. Foster KA et al: Factors associated with hemispheric hypodensity after subdural hematoma following abusive head trauma in children. J Neurotrauma. 31(19):1625-31, 2014
                                                                          5. Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn T et al: Age determination of subdural hematomas with CT and MRI: a systematic review. Eur J Radiol. 83(7):1257-68, 2014
                                                                          6. Bradford R et al: Serial neuroimaging in infants with abusive head trauma: timing abusive injuries. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 12(2):110-9, 2013
                                                                          7. Chotai S et al: Brain herniation induced by drainage of subdural hematoma in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Asian J Neurosurg. 8(2):112-5, 2013
                                                                          8. McKeag H et al: Subdural hemorrhage in pediatric patients with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 11(4):438-44, 2013
                                                                          9. Son S et al: Natural course of initially non-operated cases of acute subdural hematoma: the risk factors of hematoma progression. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 54(3):211-9, 2013
                                                                          10. Hobbs C et al: Subdural haematoma and effusion in infancy: an epidemiological study. Arch Dis Child. 90(9):952-5, 2005
                                                                          11. Vinchon M et al: Imaging of head injuries in infants: temporal correlates and forensic implications for the diagnosis of child abuse. J Neurosurg. 101(1 Suppl):44-52, 2004
                                                                          12. Hymel KP et al: Intracranial hemorrhage and rebleeding in suspected victims of abusive head trauma: addressing the forensic controversies. Child Maltreat. 7(4):329-48, 2002
                                                                          13. Loh JK et al: Acute subdural hematoma in infancy. Surg Neurol. 58(3-4):218-24, 2002
                                                                          14. Feldman KW et al: The cause of infant and toddler subdural hemorrhage: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 108(3):636-46, 2001
                                                                          15. Lee KS et al: The fate of traumatic subdural hygroma in serial computed tomographic scans. J Korean Med Sci. 15(5):560-8, 2000
                                                                          16. Mori K et al: Delayed magnetic resonance imaging with GdD-DTPA differentiates subdural hygroma and subdural effusion. Surg Neurol. 53(4):303-10; discussion 310-1, 2000
                                                                          17. Sharma RR et al: Symptomatic calcified subdural hematomas. Pediatr Neurosurg. 31(3):150-4, 1999
                                                                          18. Dias MS et al: Serial radiography in the infant shaken impact syndrome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 29(2):77-85, 1998
                                                                          19. Fujisawa H et al: Serum protein exudation in chronic subdural haematomas: a mechanism for haematoma enlargement? Acta Neurochir (Wien). 140(2):161-5; discussion 165-6, 1998
                                                                          20. Lee KS et al: The computed tomographic attenuation and the age of subdural hematomas. J Korean Med Sci. 12(4):353-9, 1997
                                                                          21. Park CK et al: Spontaneous evolution of posttraumatic subdural hygroma into chronic subdural haematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 127(1-2):41-7, 1994
                                                                          22. Destian S et al: Differentiation between meningeal fibrosis and chronic subdural hematoma after ventricular shunting: value of enhanced CT and MR scans. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 10(5):1021-6, 1989
                                                                          23. Ohno K et al: Role of traumatic subdural fluid collection in developing process of chronic subdural hematoma. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ. 33(3):99-106, 1986