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Expected Changes in Neck After Radiation Therapy
Evelyn W. K. Tang, MBBS, FRCR; H. Y. Yuen, MBChB, FRCR; Anil T. Ahuja, MD, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Radiation therapy (XRT)
          • Definitions

            • Early radiation complications occur during course of XRT or within 90 days after treatment and are mostly reversible
            • Late radiation complications become apparent > 90 days after completion of treatment, take months to years to develop, and are often irreversible

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. King AD et al: Functional MRI for the prediction of treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: potential and limitations. Cancer Imaging. 16(1):23, 2016
                                    2. Bharatha A et al: Pictorial essay: early- and late-term effects of radiotherapy in head and neck imaging. Can Assoc Radiol J. 63(2):119-28, 2012
                                    3. Saito N et al: Posttreatment CT and MR imaging in head and neck cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiographics. 32(5):1261-82; discussion 1282-4, 2012
                                    4. Glastonbury CM et al: The postradiation neck: evaluating response to treatment and recognizing complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(2):W164-71, 2010
                                    5. Murphy BA et al: Mucositis-related morbidity and resource utilization in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. J Pain Symptom Manage. 38(4):522-32, 2009
                                    6. Popovtzer A et al: Anatomical changes in the pharyngeal constrictors after chemo-irradiation of head and neck cancer and their dose-effect relationships: MRI-based study. Radiother Oncol. 93(3):510-5, 2009
                                    7. Truong MT et al: Emerging applications of stereotactic radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Neurosurg Focus. 27(6):E11, 2009
                                    8. Hermans R: Posttreatment imaging in head and neck cancer. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):501-11, 2008
                                    9. Corvò R: Evidence-based radiation oncology in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Radiother Oncol. 85(1):156-70, 2007
                                    10. Wu Q et al: The potential for sparing of parotids and escalation of biologically effective dose with intensity-modulated radiation treatments of head and neck cancers: a treatment design study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 46(1):195-205, 2000
                                    11. Ahuja A et al: Echography of metastatic nodes treated by radiotherapy. J Laryngol Otol. 113(11):993-8, 1999
                                    12. Teh BS et al: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): a new promising technology in radiation oncology. Oncologist. 4(6):433-42, 1999
                                    13. Ahuja A et al: The sonographic appearance and significance of cervical metastatic nodes following radiotherapy for nasopharyngaeal carcinoma. Clin Radiol. 51(10):698-701, 1996
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Radiation therapy (XRT)
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Early radiation complications occur during course of XRT or within 90 days after treatment and are mostly reversible
                                              • Late radiation complications become apparent > 90 days after completion of treatment, take months to years to develop, and are often irreversible

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Consider

                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. King AD et al: Functional MRI for the prediction of treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: potential and limitations. Cancer Imaging. 16(1):23, 2016
                                                                      2. Bharatha A et al: Pictorial essay: early- and late-term effects of radiotherapy in head and neck imaging. Can Assoc Radiol J. 63(2):119-28, 2012
                                                                      3. Saito N et al: Posttreatment CT and MR imaging in head and neck cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiographics. 32(5):1261-82; discussion 1282-4, 2012
                                                                      4. Glastonbury CM et al: The postradiation neck: evaluating response to treatment and recognizing complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(2):W164-71, 2010
                                                                      5. Murphy BA et al: Mucositis-related morbidity and resource utilization in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. J Pain Symptom Manage. 38(4):522-32, 2009
                                                                      6. Popovtzer A et al: Anatomical changes in the pharyngeal constrictors after chemo-irradiation of head and neck cancer and their dose-effect relationships: MRI-based study. Radiother Oncol. 93(3):510-5, 2009
                                                                      7. Truong MT et al: Emerging applications of stereotactic radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Neurosurg Focus. 27(6):E11, 2009
                                                                      8. Hermans R: Posttreatment imaging in head and neck cancer. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):501-11, 2008
                                                                      9. Corvò R: Evidence-based radiation oncology in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Radiother Oncol. 85(1):156-70, 2007
                                                                      10. Wu Q et al: The potential for sparing of parotids and escalation of biologically effective dose with intensity-modulated radiation treatments of head and neck cancers: a treatment design study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 46(1):195-205, 2000
                                                                      11. Ahuja A et al: Echography of metastatic nodes treated by radiotherapy. J Laryngol Otol. 113(11):993-8, 1999
                                                                      12. Teh BS et al: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): a new promising technology in radiation oncology. Oncologist. 4(6):433-42, 1999
                                                                      13. Ahuja A et al: The sonographic appearance and significance of cervical metastatic nodes following radiotherapy for nasopharyngaeal carcinoma. Clin Radiol. 51(10):698-701, 1996