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Extramedullary Hematopoiesis, Brain
Charles Raybaud, MD, FRCPC
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH)
            • Synonyms

              • Extramedullary erythropoiesis
            • Definitions

              • Extramedullary compensatory formation of blood elements due to decreased medullary hematopoiesis

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Ghieda U et al: Progressive spinal cord compression due to epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia intermedia. A case report and literature review. Neuroradiol J. 26(1):111-7, 2013
                                            2. Tefferi A: Primary myelofibrosis: 2013 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 88(2):141-50, 2013
                                            3. Eskazan AE et al: Intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in patients with thalassemia: a case report and review of the literature. Transfusion. 52(8):1715-20, 2012
                                            4. Sohawon D et al: Extra-medullary haematopoiesis: a pictorial review of its typical and atypical locations. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 56(5):538-44, 2012
                                            5. Debard A et al: Dural localization of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Report of a case. J Neurol. 256(5):837-8, 2009
                                            6. Ashkzaran HR et al: Epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis. JBR-BTR. 91(3):82-3, 2008
                                            7. Baehring JM: Cord compression caused by extramedullary hematopoiesis within the epidural space. J Neurooncol. 86(2):173-4, 2008
                                            8. Meo A et al: Effect of hydroxyurea on extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia intermedia: case reports and literature review. Int J Lab Hematol. 30(5):425-31, 2008
                                            9. Tun K et al: Meningeal extramedullary haematopoiesis mimicking subdural hematoma. J Clin Neurosci. 15(2):208-10, 2008
                                            10. Ittipunkul N et al: Extra-medullary hematopoiesis causing bilateral optic atrophy in beta thalassemia/Hb E disease. J Med Assoc Thai. 90(4):809-12, 2007
                                            11. Takahashi S et al: Paravertebral extramedulary hematopoiesis arising with osteopetrosis tarda. Intern Med. 46(18):1589-92, 2007
                                            12. Tsitsopoulos P et al: Lumbar nerve root compression due to extramedullary hemopoiesis in a patient with thalassemia: complete clinical regression with radiation therapy. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Spine. 6(2):156-60, 2007
                                            13. Collins WO et al: Extramedullary hematopoiesis of the paranasal sinuses in sickle cell disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 132(6):954-6, 2005
                                            14. Haidar S et al: Intracranial involvement in extramedullary hematopoiesis: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Radiol. 35(6):630-4, 2005
                                            15. Koch CA et al: Nonhepatosplenic extramedullary hematopoiesis: associated diseases, pathology, clinical course, and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 78(10):1223-33, 2003
                                            16. Rizzo L et al: Extramedullary hematopoiesis: unusual meningeal and paranasal sinuses presentation in Paget disease. Case report. Radiol Med (Torino). 105(4):376-81, 2003
                                            17. Chourmouzi D et al: MRI findings of extramedullary haemopoiesis. Eur Radiol. 11(9):1803-6, 2001
                                            18. Aarabi B et al: Visual failure caused by suprasellar extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta thalassemia: case report. Neurosurgery. 42(4):922-5; discussion 925-6, 1998
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Extramedullary erythropoiesis
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Extramedullary compensatory formation of blood elements due to decreased medullary hematopoiesis

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Ghieda U et al: Progressive spinal cord compression due to epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia intermedia. A case report and literature review. Neuroradiol J. 26(1):111-7, 2013
                                                                                      2. Tefferi A: Primary myelofibrosis: 2013 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 88(2):141-50, 2013
                                                                                      3. Eskazan AE et al: Intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in patients with thalassemia: a case report and review of the literature. Transfusion. 52(8):1715-20, 2012
                                                                                      4. Sohawon D et al: Extra-medullary haematopoiesis: a pictorial review of its typical and atypical locations. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 56(5):538-44, 2012
                                                                                      5. Debard A et al: Dural localization of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Report of a case. J Neurol. 256(5):837-8, 2009
                                                                                      6. Ashkzaran HR et al: Epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis. JBR-BTR. 91(3):82-3, 2008
                                                                                      7. Baehring JM: Cord compression caused by extramedullary hematopoiesis within the epidural space. J Neurooncol. 86(2):173-4, 2008
                                                                                      8. Meo A et al: Effect of hydroxyurea on extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia intermedia: case reports and literature review. Int J Lab Hematol. 30(5):425-31, 2008
                                                                                      9. Tun K et al: Meningeal extramedullary haematopoiesis mimicking subdural hematoma. J Clin Neurosci. 15(2):208-10, 2008
                                                                                      10. Ittipunkul N et al: Extra-medullary hematopoiesis causing bilateral optic atrophy in beta thalassemia/Hb E disease. J Med Assoc Thai. 90(4):809-12, 2007
                                                                                      11. Takahashi S et al: Paravertebral extramedulary hematopoiesis arising with osteopetrosis tarda. Intern Med. 46(18):1589-92, 2007
                                                                                      12. Tsitsopoulos P et al: Lumbar nerve root compression due to extramedullary hemopoiesis in a patient with thalassemia: complete clinical regression with radiation therapy. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Spine. 6(2):156-60, 2007
                                                                                      13. Collins WO et al: Extramedullary hematopoiesis of the paranasal sinuses in sickle cell disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 132(6):954-6, 2005
                                                                                      14. Haidar S et al: Intracranial involvement in extramedullary hematopoiesis: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Radiol. 35(6):630-4, 2005
                                                                                      15. Koch CA et al: Nonhepatosplenic extramedullary hematopoiesis: associated diseases, pathology, clinical course, and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 78(10):1223-33, 2003
                                                                                      16. Rizzo L et al: Extramedullary hematopoiesis: unusual meningeal and paranasal sinuses presentation in Paget disease. Case report. Radiol Med (Torino). 105(4):376-81, 2003
                                                                                      17. Chourmouzi D et al: MRI findings of extramedullary haemopoiesis. Eur Radiol. 11(9):1803-6, 2001
                                                                                      18. Aarabi B et al: Visual failure caused by suprasellar extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta thalassemia: case report. Neurosurgery. 42(4):922-5; discussion 925-6, 1998