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Female Pelvic Floor
Paula J. Woodward, MD; Rania Farouk El Sayed, MD, PhD; Akram M. Shaaban, MBBCh
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Functional Approaches

  • Classic 3-Compartment Approach

    • Active and Passive Conceptual Approach

      • Multilayered System Approach

        • Functional Supporting Systems Approach

          BONY PELVIS & WALLS

          • Osseous Structures

            • Functional Correlation of Bony Pelvis

              • Walls

                • Ligaments and Fascia

                  PELVIC DIAPHRAGM

                  • Definition

                    • Coccygeus Muscle

                      • Levator Ani Muscle

                        • Innervation

                          • Function

                            • MR Imaging

                              SUPPORTIVE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

                              • Anatomy and Functional Correlation

                                • Endopelvic Fascia

                                  • Ligaments

                                    • Levels of Vaginal Support

                                      • Urethral Support

                                        UROGENITAL DIAPHRAGM (PERINEAL MEMBRANE)

                                        • Location and Description

                                          PERINEUM

                                          • Location and Description

                                            • Divisions

                                              SUPERFICIAL EXTERNAL GENITAL MUSCLES

                                              • Location

                                                • Muscles

                                                  PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE AND ENDOPELVIC FASCIAL INTERACTION

                                                  • Normal

                                                    • Abnormal

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Farouk El Sayed R: The urogynecological side of pelvic floor MRI: the clinician's needs and the radiologist's role. Abdom Imaging. 38(5):912-29, 2013
                                                      2. Petros P et al: Reconstructive pelvic floor surgery according to the integral theory. In Petros P et al: The Female Pelvic Floor: Function, Dysfunction and Management According to the Integral Theory. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 77-137, 2007
                                                      3. Delancey J et al: Functional anatomy of the pelvic floor. In Bartram C et al: Imaging Pelvic Floor Disorders. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer, 27-38, 2003
                                                      4. Fielding JR: Practical MR imaging of female pelvic floor weakness. Radiographics. 22(2):295-304, 2002
                                                      5. Singh K et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of normal levator ani anatomy and function. Obstet Gynecol. 99(3):433-8, 2002
                                                      6. Bø K et al: Dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor muscles in an upright sitting position. Neurourol Urodyn. 20(2):167-74, 2001
                                                      7. Shafik A: Levator ani muscle: new physioanatomical aspects and role in the micturition mechanism. World J Urol. 17(5):266-73, 1999
                                                      8. Tunn R et al: Static magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic floor muscle morphology in women with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic prolapse. Neurourol Urodyn. 17(6):579-89, 1998
                                                      9. Fröhlich B et al: Tomographical anatomy of the pelvis, pelvic floor, and related structures. Clin Anat. 10(4):223-30, 1997
                                                      10. Strohbehn K et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator ani with anatomic correlation. Obstet Gynecol. 87(2):277-85, 1996
                                                      11. Klutke CG et al: Functional female pelvic anatomy. Urol Clin North Am. 22(3):487-98, 1995
                                                      12. Goodrich MA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic floor relaxation: dynamic analysis and evaluation of patients before and after surgical repair. Obstet Gynecol. 82(6):883-91, 1993
                                                      Related Anatomy
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                                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                      References
                                                      Tables

                                                      Tables

                                                      Functional Approaches

                                                      • Classic 3-Compartment Approach

                                                        • Active and Passive Conceptual Approach

                                                          • Multilayered System Approach

                                                            • Functional Supporting Systems Approach

                                                              BONY PELVIS & WALLS

                                                              • Osseous Structures

                                                                • Functional Correlation of Bony Pelvis

                                                                  • Walls

                                                                    • Ligaments and Fascia

                                                                      PELVIC DIAPHRAGM

                                                                      • Definition

                                                                        • Coccygeus Muscle

                                                                          • Levator Ani Muscle

                                                                            • Innervation

                                                                              • Function

                                                                                • MR Imaging

                                                                                  SUPPORTIVE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

                                                                                  • Anatomy and Functional Correlation

                                                                                    • Endopelvic Fascia

                                                                                      • Ligaments

                                                                                        • Levels of Vaginal Support

                                                                                          • Urethral Support

                                                                                            UROGENITAL DIAPHRAGM (PERINEAL MEMBRANE)

                                                                                            • Location and Description

                                                                                              PERINEUM

                                                                                              • Location and Description

                                                                                                • Divisions

                                                                                                  SUPERFICIAL EXTERNAL GENITAL MUSCLES

                                                                                                  • Location

                                                                                                    • Muscles

                                                                                                      PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE AND ENDOPELVIC FASCIAL INTERACTION

                                                                                                      • Normal

                                                                                                        • Abnormal

                                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                                          1. Farouk El Sayed R: The urogynecological side of pelvic floor MRI: the clinician's needs and the radiologist's role. Abdom Imaging. 38(5):912-29, 2013
                                                                                                          2. Petros P et al: Reconstructive pelvic floor surgery according to the integral theory. In Petros P et al: The Female Pelvic Floor: Function, Dysfunction and Management According to the Integral Theory. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 77-137, 2007
                                                                                                          3. Delancey J et al: Functional anatomy of the pelvic floor. In Bartram C et al: Imaging Pelvic Floor Disorders. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer, 27-38, 2003
                                                                                                          4. Fielding JR: Practical MR imaging of female pelvic floor weakness. Radiographics. 22(2):295-304, 2002
                                                                                                          5. Singh K et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of normal levator ani anatomy and function. Obstet Gynecol. 99(3):433-8, 2002
                                                                                                          6. Bø K et al: Dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor muscles in an upright sitting position. Neurourol Urodyn. 20(2):167-74, 2001
                                                                                                          7. Shafik A: Levator ani muscle: new physioanatomical aspects and role in the micturition mechanism. World J Urol. 17(5):266-73, 1999
                                                                                                          8. Tunn R et al: Static magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic floor muscle morphology in women with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic prolapse. Neurourol Urodyn. 17(6):579-89, 1998
                                                                                                          9. Fröhlich B et al: Tomographical anatomy of the pelvis, pelvic floor, and related structures. Clin Anat. 10(4):223-30, 1997
                                                                                                          10. Strohbehn K et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator ani with anatomic correlation. Obstet Gynecol. 87(2):277-85, 1996
                                                                                                          11. Klutke CG et al: Functional female pelvic anatomy. Urol Clin North Am. 22(3):487-98, 1995
                                                                                                          12. Goodrich MA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic floor relaxation: dynamic analysis and evaluation of patients before and after surgical repair. Obstet Gynecol. 82(6):883-91, 1993