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Femoral Hernia
Siva P. Raman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Femoral hernia (FH)
          • Synonyms

            • Crural hernia, enteromerocele, femorocele
          • Definitions

            • Protrusion of abdominal contents through femoral ring into femoral canal

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Dahlstrand U et al: Limited potential for prevention of emergency surgery for femoral hernia. World J Surg. ePub, 2014
                                  2. Alhambra-Rodriguez de Guzmán C et al: Improved outcomes of incarcerated femoral hernia: a multivariate analysis of predictive factors of bowel ischemia and potential impact on postoperative complications. Am J Surg. 205(2):188-93, 2013
                                  3. Burkhardt JH et al: Diagnosis of inguinal region hernias with axial CT: the lateral crescent sign and other key findings. Radiographics. 31(2):E1-12, 2011
                                  4. Cherian PT et al: The diagnosis and classification of inguinal and femoral hernia on multisection spiral CT. Clin Radiol. 63(2):184-92, 2008
                                  5. Cherian PT et al: Radiologic anatomy of the inguinofemoral region: insights from MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(4):W177-83, 2007
                                  6. Suzuki S et al: Differentiation of femoral versus inguinal hernia: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(2):W78-83, 2007
                                  7. Akopian G et al: De Garengeot hernia: appendicitis within a femoral hernia. Am Surg. 71(6):526-7, 2005
                                  8. Bringman S et al: Intestinal obstruction after inguinal and femoral hernia repair: a study of 33,275 operations during 1992-2000 in Sweden. Hernia. 9(2):178-83, 2005
                                  9. Holzheimer RG: Inguinal Hernia: classification, diagnosis and treatment--classic, traumatic and Sportsman's hernia. Eur J Med Res. 10(3):121-34, 2005
                                  10. Ikossi DG et al: Laparoscopic femoral hernia repair using umbilical ligament as plug. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 15(2):197-200, 2005
                                  11. Alvarez JA et al: Incarcerated groin hernias in adults: presentation and outcome. Hernia. 8(2):121-6, 2004
                                  12. Malek S et al: Emergency repair of groin herniae: outcome and implications for elective surgery waiting times. Int J Clin Pract. 58(2):207-9, 2004
                                  13. Hachisuka T: Femoral hernia repair. Surg Clin North Am. 83(5):1189-205, 2003
                                  14. Swarnkar K et al: Sutureless mesh-plug femoral hernioplasty. Am J Surg. 186(2):201-2, 2003
                                  15. Zollinger RM Jr: Classification systems for groin hernias. Surg Clin North Am. 83(5):1053-63, 2003
                                  16. Lau WY: History of treatment of groin hernia. World J Surg. 26(6):748-59, 2002
                                  17. Dieudonne G: Plug repair of groin hernias: a 10-year experience. Hernia. 5(4):189-91, 2001
                                  18. Zhang GQ et al: Groin hernias in adults: value of color Doppler sonography in their classification. J Clin Ultrasound. 29(8):429-34, 2001
                                  19. Ianora AA et al: Abdominal wall hernias: imaging with spiral CT. Eur Radiol. 10(6):914-9, 2000
                                  20. Toms AP et al: Illustrated review of new imaging techniques in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias. Br J Surg. 86(10): 1243-9, 1999
                                  21. Loftus WK et al: Case report: Femoral hernia causing small bowel obstruction--ultrasound diagnosis. Clin Radiol. 53(8):618-9, 1998
                                  22. Radcliffe G et al: Reappraisal of femoral hernia in children. Br J Surg. 84(1): 58-60, 1997
                                  23. Harrison LA et al: Abdominal wall hernias: review of herniography and correlation with cross-sectional imaging. Radiographics. 15(2):315-32, 1995
                                  24. Chamary VL: Femoral hernia: intestinal obstruction is an unrecognized source of morbidity and mortality. Br J Surg. 80(2): 230-2, 1993
                                  25. Lewin JR: Femoral hernia with upward extension into abdominal wall: CT diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 136(1):206-7, 1981
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Femoral hernia (FH)
                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Crural hernia, enteromerocele, femorocele
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Protrusion of abdominal contents through femoral ring into femoral canal

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Demographics

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Dahlstrand U et al: Limited potential for prevention of emergency surgery for femoral hernia. World J Surg. ePub, 2014
                                                                  2. Alhambra-Rodriguez de Guzmán C et al: Improved outcomes of incarcerated femoral hernia: a multivariate analysis of predictive factors of bowel ischemia and potential impact on postoperative complications. Am J Surg. 205(2):188-93, 2013
                                                                  3. Burkhardt JH et al: Diagnosis of inguinal region hernias with axial CT: the lateral crescent sign and other key findings. Radiographics. 31(2):E1-12, 2011
                                                                  4. Cherian PT et al: The diagnosis and classification of inguinal and femoral hernia on multisection spiral CT. Clin Radiol. 63(2):184-92, 2008
                                                                  5. Cherian PT et al: Radiologic anatomy of the inguinofemoral region: insights from MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(4):W177-83, 2007
                                                                  6. Suzuki S et al: Differentiation of femoral versus inguinal hernia: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(2):W78-83, 2007
                                                                  7. Akopian G et al: De Garengeot hernia: appendicitis within a femoral hernia. Am Surg. 71(6):526-7, 2005
                                                                  8. Bringman S et al: Intestinal obstruction after inguinal and femoral hernia repair: a study of 33,275 operations during 1992-2000 in Sweden. Hernia. 9(2):178-83, 2005
                                                                  9. Holzheimer RG: Inguinal Hernia: classification, diagnosis and treatment--classic, traumatic and Sportsman's hernia. Eur J Med Res. 10(3):121-34, 2005
                                                                  10. Ikossi DG et al: Laparoscopic femoral hernia repair using umbilical ligament as plug. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 15(2):197-200, 2005
                                                                  11. Alvarez JA et al: Incarcerated groin hernias in adults: presentation and outcome. Hernia. 8(2):121-6, 2004
                                                                  12. Malek S et al: Emergency repair of groin herniae: outcome and implications for elective surgery waiting times. Int J Clin Pract. 58(2):207-9, 2004
                                                                  13. Hachisuka T: Femoral hernia repair. Surg Clin North Am. 83(5):1189-205, 2003
                                                                  14. Swarnkar K et al: Sutureless mesh-plug femoral hernioplasty. Am J Surg. 186(2):201-2, 2003
                                                                  15. Zollinger RM Jr: Classification systems for groin hernias. Surg Clin North Am. 83(5):1053-63, 2003
                                                                  16. Lau WY: History of treatment of groin hernia. World J Surg. 26(6):748-59, 2002
                                                                  17. Dieudonne G: Plug repair of groin hernias: a 10-year experience. Hernia. 5(4):189-91, 2001
                                                                  18. Zhang GQ et al: Groin hernias in adults: value of color Doppler sonography in their classification. J Clin Ultrasound. 29(8):429-34, 2001
                                                                  19. Ianora AA et al: Abdominal wall hernias: imaging with spiral CT. Eur Radiol. 10(6):914-9, 2000
                                                                  20. Toms AP et al: Illustrated review of new imaging techniques in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias. Br J Surg. 86(10): 1243-9, 1999
                                                                  21. Loftus WK et al: Case report: Femoral hernia causing small bowel obstruction--ultrasound diagnosis. Clin Radiol. 53(8):618-9, 1998
                                                                  22. Radcliffe G et al: Reappraisal of femoral hernia in children. Br J Surg. 84(1): 58-60, 1997
                                                                  23. Harrison LA et al: Abdominal wall hernias: review of herniography and correlation with cross-sectional imaging. Radiographics. 15(2):315-32, 1995
                                                                  24. Chamary VL: Femoral hernia: intestinal obstruction is an unrecognized source of morbidity and mortality. Br J Surg. 80(2): 230-2, 1993
                                                                  25. Lewin JR: Femoral hernia with upward extension into abdominal wall: CT diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 136(1):206-7, 1981