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Fibromatosis Colli
Sara M. O'Hara, MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) pseudotumor, SCM tumor of infancy, congenital muscular torticollis, neonatal torticollis, pseudotumor of infancy
          • Definitions

            • Most common cervical "mass" of infancy
            • Benign fibrosis of SCM muscle
            • Postulated to be due to birth trauma, peripartum injury, in utero compartment syndrome, or maldevelopment
            • Torticollis ("wryneck"): Persistent twisting of neck such that ear on affected side is positioned lower & more midline than normal
              • When bony causes of torticollis have been excluded, consider fibrosis of SCM muscle

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Agarwal H et al: Non-malignant fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors in pediatric age group: clues and pitfalls to the cytological diagnosis. Cytopathology. 31(2):115-21, 2020
                                      2. Navarro OM: Pearls and pitfalls in the imaging of soft-tissue masses in children. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 41(5):498-512, 2020
                                      3. Caprio MG et al: Paediatric neck ultrasonography: a pictorial essay. J Ultrasound. 22(2):215-26, 2019
                                      4. Xiong Z et al: Unique finding in congenital muscular torticollis: clinic screening on the neck of one day old neonate and ultrasonographic imaging from birth through 3 years of follow-up. Medicine (Baltimore). 98(11):e14794, 2019
                                      5. Bansal AG et al: US of pediatric superficial masses of the head and neck. Radiographics. 38(4):1239-63, 2018
                                      6. Sargar KM et al: Pediatric fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 36(4):1195-214, 2016
                                      7. Wojcicki KM et al: Fibromatosis colli spuriously presenting as a retropharyngeal mass on cervical spine radiographs. Intern Emerg Med. 11(2):277-9, 2015
                                      8. Ainsworth KE et al: Congenital infantile fibrosarcoma: review of imaging features. Pediatr Radiol. 44(9):1124-9, 2014
                                      9. Lowry KC et al: The presentation and management of fibromatosis colli. Ear Nose Throat J. 89(9):E4-8, 2010
                                      10. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP: musculoskeletal fibromatoses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 29(7):2143-73, 2009
                                      11. Ekinci S et al: Infantile fibromatosis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle mimicking muscular torticollis. J Pediatr Surg. 39(9):1424-5, 2004
                                      12. Parikh SN et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of infantile torticollis. Orthopedics. 27(5):509-15, 2004
                                      13. Sharma S et al: Fibromatosis colli in infants. a cytologic study of eight cases. Acta Cytol. 47(3):359-62, 2003
                                      14. Wei JL et al: Pseudotumor of infancy and congenital muscular torticollis: 170 cases. Laryngoscope. 111(4 Pt 1):688-95, 2001
                                      15. Cheng JC et al: Sternocleidomastoid pseudotumor and congenital muscular torticollis in infants: a prospective study of 510 cases. J Pediatr. 134(6):712-6, 1999
                                      16. Demirbilek S et al: Congenital muscular torticollis and sternomastoid tumor: results of nonoperative treatment. J Pediatr Surg. 34(4):549-51, 1999
                                      17. Jaber MR et al: Sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy: two cases of an interesting entity. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 47(3):269-74, 1999
                                      18. Ablin DS et al: Ultrasound and MR imaging of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy). Pediatr Radiol. 28(4):230-3, 1998
                                      19. Bedi DG et al: Fibromatosis colli of infancy: variability of sonographic appearance. J Clin Ultrasound. 26(7):345-8, 1998
                                      20. Eich GF et al: Fibrous tumours in children: imaging features of a heterogeneous group of disorders. Pediatr Radiol. 28(7):500-9, 1998
                                      21. Garant M et al: Aggressive fibromatosis of the neck: MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 18(8):1429-31, 1997
                                      22. Vazquez E et al: US, CT, and MR imaging of neck lesions in children. Radiographics. 15(1):105-22, 1995
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) pseudotumor, SCM tumor of infancy, congenital muscular torticollis, neonatal torticollis, pseudotumor of infancy
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Most common cervical "mass" of infancy
                                                • Benign fibrosis of SCM muscle
                                                • Postulated to be due to birth trauma, peripartum injury, in utero compartment syndrome, or maldevelopment
                                                • Torticollis ("wryneck"): Persistent twisting of neck such that ear on affected side is positioned lower & more midline than normal
                                                  • When bony causes of torticollis have been excluded, consider fibrosis of SCM muscle

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Agarwal H et al: Non-malignant fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors in pediatric age group: clues and pitfalls to the cytological diagnosis. Cytopathology. 31(2):115-21, 2020
                                                                          2. Navarro OM: Pearls and pitfalls in the imaging of soft-tissue masses in children. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 41(5):498-512, 2020
                                                                          3. Caprio MG et al: Paediatric neck ultrasonography: a pictorial essay. J Ultrasound. 22(2):215-26, 2019
                                                                          4. Xiong Z et al: Unique finding in congenital muscular torticollis: clinic screening on the neck of one day old neonate and ultrasonographic imaging from birth through 3 years of follow-up. Medicine (Baltimore). 98(11):e14794, 2019
                                                                          5. Bansal AG et al: US of pediatric superficial masses of the head and neck. Radiographics. 38(4):1239-63, 2018
                                                                          6. Sargar KM et al: Pediatric fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 36(4):1195-214, 2016
                                                                          7. Wojcicki KM et al: Fibromatosis colli spuriously presenting as a retropharyngeal mass on cervical spine radiographs. Intern Emerg Med. 11(2):277-9, 2015
                                                                          8. Ainsworth KE et al: Congenital infantile fibrosarcoma: review of imaging features. Pediatr Radiol. 44(9):1124-9, 2014
                                                                          9. Lowry KC et al: The presentation and management of fibromatosis colli. Ear Nose Throat J. 89(9):E4-8, 2010
                                                                          10. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP: musculoskeletal fibromatoses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 29(7):2143-73, 2009
                                                                          11. Ekinci S et al: Infantile fibromatosis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle mimicking muscular torticollis. J Pediatr Surg. 39(9):1424-5, 2004
                                                                          12. Parikh SN et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of infantile torticollis. Orthopedics. 27(5):509-15, 2004
                                                                          13. Sharma S et al: Fibromatosis colli in infants. a cytologic study of eight cases. Acta Cytol. 47(3):359-62, 2003
                                                                          14. Wei JL et al: Pseudotumor of infancy and congenital muscular torticollis: 170 cases. Laryngoscope. 111(4 Pt 1):688-95, 2001
                                                                          15. Cheng JC et al: Sternocleidomastoid pseudotumor and congenital muscular torticollis in infants: a prospective study of 510 cases. J Pediatr. 134(6):712-6, 1999
                                                                          16. Demirbilek S et al: Congenital muscular torticollis and sternomastoid tumor: results of nonoperative treatment. J Pediatr Surg. 34(4):549-51, 1999
                                                                          17. Jaber MR et al: Sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy: two cases of an interesting entity. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 47(3):269-74, 1999
                                                                          18. Ablin DS et al: Ultrasound and MR imaging of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy). Pediatr Radiol. 28(4):230-3, 1998
                                                                          19. Bedi DG et al: Fibromatosis colli of infancy: variability of sonographic appearance. J Clin Ultrasound. 26(7):345-8, 1998
                                                                          20. Eich GF et al: Fibrous tumours in children: imaging features of a heterogeneous group of disorders. Pediatr Radiol. 28(7):500-9, 1998
                                                                          21. Garant M et al: Aggressive fibromatosis of the neck: MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 18(8):1429-31, 1997
                                                                          22. Vazquez E et al: US, CT, and MR imaging of neck lesions in children. Radiographics. 15(1):105-22, 1995