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Fistulas of Genitourinary Tract
Bryan R. Foster, MD; Amir A. Borhani, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Nonanatomic communication between 2 epithelial-lined structures
            • Types include enterovesical, colovesical, rectovaginal, vesicouterine, vesicovaginal, vesicocutaneous, etc.

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Goh J et al: An International Continence Society (ICS) report on the terminology for female pelvic floor fistulas. Neurourol Urodyn. 39(8):2040-71, 2020
                                      2. Karaosmanoglu AD et al: Imaging findings of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system mimicking neoplastic diseases. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(4):1110-21, 2020
                                      3. Sexton SJ et al: Magnetic resonance imaging features of pubic symphysis urinary fistula with pubic bone osteomyelitis in the treated prostate cancer patient. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(4):1453-60, 2019
                                      4. Tonolini M: Elucidating vaginal fistulas on CT and MRI. Insights Imaging. 10(1):123, 2019
                                      5. Hyde BJ et al: MRI review of female pelvic fistulizing disease. J Magn Reson Imaging. 48(5):1172-84, 2018
                                      6. Sun F et al: Intravesical contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the diagnosis of vesicouterine fistula (VUF): A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 97(17):e0478, 2018
                                      7. Tonolini M: Multidetector CT of expected findings and complications after hysterectomy. Insights Imaging. 9(3):369-83, 2018
                                      8. VanBuren WM et al: Imaging and surgical management of anorectal vaginal fistulas. Radiographics. 38(5):1385-401, 2018
                                      9. Tang YZ et al: Imaging features of colovesical fistulae on MRI. Br J Radiol. 85(1018):1371-5, 2012
                                      10. Ezzat M et al: Repair of giant vesicovaginal fistulas. J Urol. 181(3):1184-8, 2009
                                      11. Granberg CF et al: Functional and oncological outcomes after orthotopic neobladder reconstruction in women. BJU Int. 102(11):1551-5, 2008
                                      12. Rajaian S et al: Persistent multiple vesicocutaneous fistulas or watering-can abdomen. Urol J. 5(4):280-3, 2008
                                      13. Smayra T et al: Vesicouterine fistulas: imaging findings in three cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(1):139-42, 2005
                                      14. Yu NC et al: Fistulas of the genitourinary tract: a radiologic review. Radiographics. 24(5):1331-52, 2004
                                      15. Pickhardt PJ et al: Acquired gastrointestinal fistulas: classification, etiologies, and imaging evaluation. Radiology. 224(1):9-23, 2002
                                      16. Pollack HM et al: Clinical Urography, 2nd ed. WB Saunders. 3001-6, 2000
                                      17. Semelka RC et al: Pelvic fistulas: appearances on MR images. Abdom Imaging. 22(1):91-5, 1997
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Nonanatomic communication between 2 epithelial-lined structures
                                                • Types include enterovesical, colovesical, rectovaginal, vesicouterine, vesicovaginal, vesicocutaneous, etc.

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Goh J et al: An International Continence Society (ICS) report on the terminology for female pelvic floor fistulas. Neurourol Urodyn. 39(8):2040-71, 2020
                                                                          2. Karaosmanoglu AD et al: Imaging findings of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system mimicking neoplastic diseases. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(4):1110-21, 2020
                                                                          3. Sexton SJ et al: Magnetic resonance imaging features of pubic symphysis urinary fistula with pubic bone osteomyelitis in the treated prostate cancer patient. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(4):1453-60, 2019
                                                                          4. Tonolini M: Elucidating vaginal fistulas on CT and MRI. Insights Imaging. 10(1):123, 2019
                                                                          5. Hyde BJ et al: MRI review of female pelvic fistulizing disease. J Magn Reson Imaging. 48(5):1172-84, 2018
                                                                          6. Sun F et al: Intravesical contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the diagnosis of vesicouterine fistula (VUF): A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 97(17):e0478, 2018
                                                                          7. Tonolini M: Multidetector CT of expected findings and complications after hysterectomy. Insights Imaging. 9(3):369-83, 2018
                                                                          8. VanBuren WM et al: Imaging and surgical management of anorectal vaginal fistulas. Radiographics. 38(5):1385-401, 2018
                                                                          9. Tang YZ et al: Imaging features of colovesical fistulae on MRI. Br J Radiol. 85(1018):1371-5, 2012
                                                                          10. Ezzat M et al: Repair of giant vesicovaginal fistulas. J Urol. 181(3):1184-8, 2009
                                                                          11. Granberg CF et al: Functional and oncological outcomes after orthotopic neobladder reconstruction in women. BJU Int. 102(11):1551-5, 2008
                                                                          12. Rajaian S et al: Persistent multiple vesicocutaneous fistulas or watering-can abdomen. Urol J. 5(4):280-3, 2008
                                                                          13. Smayra T et al: Vesicouterine fistulas: imaging findings in three cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(1):139-42, 2005
                                                                          14. Yu NC et al: Fistulas of the genitourinary tract: a radiologic review. Radiographics. 24(5):1331-52, 2004
                                                                          15. Pickhardt PJ et al: Acquired gastrointestinal fistulas: classification, etiologies, and imaging evaluation. Radiology. 224(1):9-23, 2002
                                                                          16. Pollack HM et al: Clinical Urography, 2nd ed. WB Saunders. 3001-6, 2000
                                                                          17. Semelka RC et al: Pelvic fistulas: appearances on MR images. Abdom Imaging. 22(1):91-5, 1997