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Floor of Mouth Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Nicholas A. Koontz, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
              • Definitions

                • Oral cavity mucosal malignancy arising from FOM
                  • Inner surface of mandibular alveolar ridges to undersurface of tongue
                  • Overlies mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles
                  • Divided into 2 by tongue frenulum

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Fives C et al: Importance of lymphovascular invasion and invasive front on survival in floor of mouth cancer. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1528-34, 2016
                                                2. Kobayashi W et al: Can superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy replace surgery followed by radiation for advanced cancer of the tongue and floor of the mouth? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 74(6):1248-54, 2016
                                                3. Jardim JF et al: Prognostic impact of perineural invasion and lymphovascular invasion in advanced stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 44(1):23-8, 2015
                                                4. Linz C et al: Value of FDG PET/CT in staging of oral cancer: four simultaneous primary malignancies. Clin Nucl Med. 40(5):455-7, 2015
                                                5. Arya S et al: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management. Clin Radiol. 69(9):916-30, 2014
                                                6. Hong HR et al: Clinical values of (18) F-FDG PET/CT in oral cavity cancer with dental artifacts on CT or MRI. J Surg Oncol. 110(6):696-701, 2014
                                                7. Joo YH et al: Extracapsular spread and FDG PET/CT correlations in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 42(2):158-63, 2013
                                                8. Erdogan N et al: Puffed-cheek computed tomography: a dynamic maneuver for imaging oral cavity tumors. Ear Nose Throat J. 91(9):383-4, 386, 2012
                                                9. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer, 2010
                                                10. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                                11. Civantos FJ et al: Sentinel lymph node biopsy accurately stages the regional lymph nodes for T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinomas: results of a prospective multi-institutional trial. J Clin Oncol. 28(8):1395-400, 2010
                                                12. Coughlin A et al: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and the clinically n0 neck: the past, present, and future of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Curr Oncol Rep. 12(2):129-35, 2010
                                                13. Jerjes W et al: Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Head Neck Oncol. 2:9, 2010
                                                14. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                                15. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                                16. Razfar A et al: Incidence and patterns of regional metastasis in early oral squamous cell cancers: feasibility of submandibular gland preservation. Head Neck. 31(12):1619-23, 2009
                                                17. Cheng A et al: Management of the N0 neck in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 20(3):477-97, 2008
                                                18. Kirsch C: Oral cavity cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):269-80, 2007
                                                19. Chong V: Oral cavity cancer. Cancer Imaging. 5 Spec No A:S49-52, 2005
                                                20. Schmidt BL et al: Tobacco smoking history and presentation of oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 62(9):1055-8, 2004
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Abbreviations

                                                              • Floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Oral cavity mucosal malignancy arising from FOM
                                                                • Inner surface of mandibular alveolar ridges to undersurface of tongue
                                                                • Overlies mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles
                                                                • Divided into 2 by tongue frenulum

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Fives C et al: Importance of lymphovascular invasion and invasive front on survival in floor of mouth cancer. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1528-34, 2016
                                                                                              2. Kobayashi W et al: Can superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy replace surgery followed by radiation for advanced cancer of the tongue and floor of the mouth? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 74(6):1248-54, 2016
                                                                                              3. Jardim JF et al: Prognostic impact of perineural invasion and lymphovascular invasion in advanced stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 44(1):23-8, 2015
                                                                                              4. Linz C et al: Value of FDG PET/CT in staging of oral cancer: four simultaneous primary malignancies. Clin Nucl Med. 40(5):455-7, 2015
                                                                                              5. Arya S et al: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management. Clin Radiol. 69(9):916-30, 2014
                                                                                              6. Hong HR et al: Clinical values of (18) F-FDG PET/CT in oral cavity cancer with dental artifacts on CT or MRI. J Surg Oncol. 110(6):696-701, 2014
                                                                                              7. Joo YH et al: Extracapsular spread and FDG PET/CT correlations in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 42(2):158-63, 2013
                                                                                              8. Erdogan N et al: Puffed-cheek computed tomography: a dynamic maneuver for imaging oral cavity tumors. Ear Nose Throat J. 91(9):383-4, 386, 2012
                                                                                              9. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer, 2010
                                                                                              10. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                                                                              11. Civantos FJ et al: Sentinel lymph node biopsy accurately stages the regional lymph nodes for T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinomas: results of a prospective multi-institutional trial. J Clin Oncol. 28(8):1395-400, 2010
                                                                                              12. Coughlin A et al: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and the clinically n0 neck: the past, present, and future of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Curr Oncol Rep. 12(2):129-35, 2010
                                                                                              13. Jerjes W et al: Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Head Neck Oncol. 2:9, 2010
                                                                                              14. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                                                                              15. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                                                                              16. Razfar A et al: Incidence and patterns of regional metastasis in early oral squamous cell cancers: feasibility of submandibular gland preservation. Head Neck. 31(12):1619-23, 2009
                                                                                              17. Cheng A et al: Management of the N0 neck in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 20(3):477-97, 2008
                                                                                              18. Kirsch C: Oral cavity cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):269-80, 2007
                                                                                              19. Chong V: Oral cavity cancer. Cancer Imaging. 5 Spec No A:S49-52, 2005
                                                                                              20. Schmidt BL et al: Tobacco smoking history and presentation of oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 62(9):1055-8, 2004