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Foraminal Stenosis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Facet arthrosis, degenerative facet disease, degenerative joint disease, facet hypertrophy
        • Definitions

          • Osteoarthritis of synovially lined lumbar apophyseal joints

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • Fluoroscopic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Carrino JA et al: Lumbar spine: reliability of MR imaging findings. Radiology. 250(1):161-70, 2009
                                              2. Cohen SP et al: Lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint radiofrequency denervation success as a function of pain relief during diagnostic medial branch blocks: a multicenter analysis. Spine J. 8(3):498-504, 2008
                                              3. Malfair D et al: Imaging the degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 15(2):221-38, vi, 2007
                                              4. Manchikanti L et al: Evaluation of lumbar facet joint nerve blocks in the management of chronic low back pain: preliminary report of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial: clinical trial NCT00355914. Pain Physician. 10(3):425-40, 2007
                                              5. Cinotti G et al: Stenosis of lumbar intervertebral foramen: anatomic study on predisposing factors. Spine. 27(3):223-9, 2002
                                              6. Jenis LG et al: Foraminal stenosis of the lumbar spine: a review of 65 surgical cases. Am J Orthop. 30(3):205-11, 2001
                                              7. Narozny M et al: Therapeutic efficacy of selective nerve root blocks in the treatment of lumbar radicular leg pain. Swiss Med Wkly. 131(5-6):75-80, 2001
                                              8. Jenis LG et al: Spine update. Lumbar foraminal stenosis. Spine. 25(3):389-94, 2000
                                              9. Ross JS: Magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):281-91, 2000
                                              10. Postacchini F: Surgical management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Spine. 24(10):1043-7, 1999
                                              11. Czervionke LF et al: Imaging of the spine. Techniques of MR imaging. Orthop Clin North Am. 28(4):583-616, 1997
                                              12. Mehta M et al: Mechanical back pain and the facet joint syndrome. Disabil Rehabil. 16(1):2-12, 1994
                                              13. Griffiths HJ et al: Disease of the lumbosacral facet joints. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America. 3(3):567-75, 1993
                                              14. Oegema TR Jr et al: The inter-relationship of facet joint osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Br J Rheumatol. 30 Suppl 1:16-20, 1991
                                              15. Pathria M et al: Osteoarthritis of the facet joints: accuracy of oblique radiographic assessment. Radiology. 164(1):227-30, 1987
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Facet arthrosis, degenerative facet disease, degenerative joint disease, facet hypertrophy
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Osteoarthritis of synovially lined lumbar apophyseal joints

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Carrino JA et al: Lumbar spine: reliability of MR imaging findings. Radiology. 250(1):161-70, 2009
                                                                                          2. Cohen SP et al: Lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint radiofrequency denervation success as a function of pain relief during diagnostic medial branch blocks: a multicenter analysis. Spine J. 8(3):498-504, 2008
                                                                                          3. Malfair D et al: Imaging the degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 15(2):221-38, vi, 2007
                                                                                          4. Manchikanti L et al: Evaluation of lumbar facet joint nerve blocks in the management of chronic low back pain: preliminary report of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial: clinical trial NCT00355914. Pain Physician. 10(3):425-40, 2007
                                                                                          5. Cinotti G et al: Stenosis of lumbar intervertebral foramen: anatomic study on predisposing factors. Spine. 27(3):223-9, 2002
                                                                                          6. Jenis LG et al: Foraminal stenosis of the lumbar spine: a review of 65 surgical cases. Am J Orthop. 30(3):205-11, 2001
                                                                                          7. Narozny M et al: Therapeutic efficacy of selective nerve root blocks in the treatment of lumbar radicular leg pain. Swiss Med Wkly. 131(5-6):75-80, 2001
                                                                                          8. Jenis LG et al: Spine update. Lumbar foraminal stenosis. Spine. 25(3):389-94, 2000
                                                                                          9. Ross JS: Magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):281-91, 2000
                                                                                          10. Postacchini F: Surgical management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Spine. 24(10):1043-7, 1999
                                                                                          11. Czervionke LF et al: Imaging of the spine. Techniques of MR imaging. Orthop Clin North Am. 28(4):583-616, 1997
                                                                                          12. Mehta M et al: Mechanical back pain and the facet joint syndrome. Disabil Rehabil. 16(1):2-12, 1994
                                                                                          13. Griffiths HJ et al: Disease of the lumbosacral facet joints. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America. 3(3):567-75, 1993
                                                                                          14. Oegema TR Jr et al: The inter-relationship of facet joint osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Br J Rheumatol. 30 Suppl 1:16-20, 1991
                                                                                          15. Pathria M et al: Osteoarthritis of the facet joints: accuracy of oblique radiographic assessment. Radiology. 164(1):227-30, 1987