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Forearm Fractures
Kirkland W. Davis, MD, FACR; Andrew Sonin, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Both-bone fracture: usually midshaft fracture of radius and ulna
                • Nightstick fracture: nondisplaced fracture of ulnar shaft
                • Plastic deformity: bowing fracture
              • Definitions

                • Fracture, complete or incomplete, of radius &/or ulna
                • Fracture-dislocation: generally fracture of 1 forearm bone with associated dislocation of other, either at elbow or wrist

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      • MR Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    • Complications

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Hanlon DP et al: The emergent evaluation and treatment of elbow and forearm injuries. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 38(1):81-102, 2020
                                          2. Srinivasan RC et al: Forearm nonunion: characterization and management. J Hand Surg Am. 45(11):1055-64, 2020
                                          3. Sinikumpu JJ et al: The shaft fractures of the radius and ulna in children: current concepts. J Pediatr Orthop B. 24(3):200-6, 2015
                                          4. Bartoníček J et al: History of operative treatment of forearm diaphyseal fractures. J Hand Surg Am. 39(2):335-42, 2014
                                          5. Jayakumar P et al: Non-union in forearm fractures. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 81(1):22-32, 2014
                                          6. Loder RT et al: Fractures from trampolines: results from a national database, 2002 to 2011. J Pediatr Orthop. 34(7):683-90, 2014
                                          7. Massobrio M et al: Forearm post-traumatic deformities: classification and treatment. Injury. 45(2):424-7, 2014
                                          8. McGinley JC et al: MRI detection of forearm soft tissue injuries with radial head fractures. Hand (N Y). 9(1):87-92, 2014
                                          9. Schulte LM et al: Management of adult diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 22(7):437-46, 2014
                                          10. Tianhao W et al: Plastic deformation of the forearm in adults: an analysis of 30 cases. J Orthop Surg Res. 9(1):117, 2014
                                          11. Cai XZ et al: A systematic review of the non-operative treatment of nightstick fractures of the ulna. Bone Joint J. 95-B(7):952-9, 2013
                                          12. Edwards SG et al: Proximal forearm fractures. Orthop Clin North Am. 44(1):67-80, 2013
                                          13. Lieber J et al: Developments in the treatment of pediatric long bone shaft fractures. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 23(6):427-33, 2013
                                          14. Madhuri V et al: Conservative interventions for treating diaphyseal fractures of the forearm bones in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4:CD008775, 2013
                                          15. Sinikumpu JJ et al: The changing pattern of pediatric both-bone forearm shaft fractures among 86,000 children from 1997 to 2009. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 23(4):289-96, 2013
                                          16. Westacott D et al: Single-bone fixation of paediatric diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures: a systematic review. Acta Orthop Belg. 78(4):425-30, 2012
                                          17. Jones DB Jr et al: Adult diaphyseal forearm fractures: intramedullary nail versus plate fixation. J Hand Surg Am. 36(7):1216-9, 2011
                                          18. Kropman RH et al: Treatment of impacted greenstick forearm fractures in children using bandage or cast therapy: a prospective randomized trial. J Trauma. 68(2):425-8, 2010
                                          19. Black WS et al: Common forearm fractures in adults. Am Fam Physician. 80(10):1096-102, 2009
                                          20. Bae DS: Pediatric distal radius and forearm fractures. J Hand Surg [Am]. 33(10):1911-23, 2008
                                          21. Moss JP et al: Diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna in adults. Hand Clin. 23(2):143-51, v, 2007
                                          22. Patel RV et al: Forearm fractures. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 68(5):M90-1, 2007
                                          23. Sauder DJ et al: Management of isolated ulnar shaft fractures. Hand Clin. 23(2):179-84, vi, 2007
                                          24. LaStayo PC et al: The forearm complex: anatomy, biomechanics and clinical considerations. J Hand Ther. 19(2):137-44, 2006
                                          25. Sclamberg J et al: Acute plastic bowing deformation of the forearm in an adult. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 170(5):1259-60, 1998
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Both-bone fracture: usually midshaft fracture of radius and ulna
                                                        • Nightstick fracture: nondisplaced fracture of ulnar shaft
                                                        • Plastic deformity: bowing fracture
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Fracture, complete or incomplete, of radius &/or ulna
                                                        • Fracture-dislocation: generally fracture of 1 forearm bone with associated dislocation of other, either at elbow or wrist

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            • Complications

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Hanlon DP et al: The emergent evaluation and treatment of elbow and forearm injuries. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 38(1):81-102, 2020
                                                                                  2. Srinivasan RC et al: Forearm nonunion: characterization and management. J Hand Surg Am. 45(11):1055-64, 2020
                                                                                  3. Sinikumpu JJ et al: The shaft fractures of the radius and ulna in children: current concepts. J Pediatr Orthop B. 24(3):200-6, 2015
                                                                                  4. Bartoníček J et al: History of operative treatment of forearm diaphyseal fractures. J Hand Surg Am. 39(2):335-42, 2014
                                                                                  5. Jayakumar P et al: Non-union in forearm fractures. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 81(1):22-32, 2014
                                                                                  6. Loder RT et al: Fractures from trampolines: results from a national database, 2002 to 2011. J Pediatr Orthop. 34(7):683-90, 2014
                                                                                  7. Massobrio M et al: Forearm post-traumatic deformities: classification and treatment. Injury. 45(2):424-7, 2014
                                                                                  8. McGinley JC et al: MRI detection of forearm soft tissue injuries with radial head fractures. Hand (N Y). 9(1):87-92, 2014
                                                                                  9. Schulte LM et al: Management of adult diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 22(7):437-46, 2014
                                                                                  10. Tianhao W et al: Plastic deformation of the forearm in adults: an analysis of 30 cases. J Orthop Surg Res. 9(1):117, 2014
                                                                                  11. Cai XZ et al: A systematic review of the non-operative treatment of nightstick fractures of the ulna. Bone Joint J. 95-B(7):952-9, 2013
                                                                                  12. Edwards SG et al: Proximal forearm fractures. Orthop Clin North Am. 44(1):67-80, 2013
                                                                                  13. Lieber J et al: Developments in the treatment of pediatric long bone shaft fractures. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 23(6):427-33, 2013
                                                                                  14. Madhuri V et al: Conservative interventions for treating diaphyseal fractures of the forearm bones in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4:CD008775, 2013
                                                                                  15. Sinikumpu JJ et al: The changing pattern of pediatric both-bone forearm shaft fractures among 86,000 children from 1997 to 2009. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 23(4):289-96, 2013
                                                                                  16. Westacott D et al: Single-bone fixation of paediatric diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures: a systematic review. Acta Orthop Belg. 78(4):425-30, 2012
                                                                                  17. Jones DB Jr et al: Adult diaphyseal forearm fractures: intramedullary nail versus plate fixation. J Hand Surg Am. 36(7):1216-9, 2011
                                                                                  18. Kropman RH et al: Treatment of impacted greenstick forearm fractures in children using bandage or cast therapy: a prospective randomized trial. J Trauma. 68(2):425-8, 2010
                                                                                  19. Black WS et al: Common forearm fractures in adults. Am Fam Physician. 80(10):1096-102, 2009
                                                                                  20. Bae DS: Pediatric distal radius and forearm fractures. J Hand Surg [Am]. 33(10):1911-23, 2008
                                                                                  21. Moss JP et al: Diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna in adults. Hand Clin. 23(2):143-51, v, 2007
                                                                                  22. Patel RV et al: Forearm fractures. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 68(5):M90-1, 2007
                                                                                  23. Sauder DJ et al: Management of isolated ulnar shaft fractures. Hand Clin. 23(2):179-84, vi, 2007
                                                                                  24. LaStayo PC et al: The forearm complex: anatomy, biomechanics and clinical considerations. J Hand Ther. 19(2):137-44, 2006
                                                                                  25. Sclamberg J et al: Acute plastic bowing deformation of the forearm in an adult. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 170(5):1259-60, 1998