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Frontoethmoidal Cephalocele
Michelle A. Michel, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Frontoethmoidal cephalocele (FECeph)
                  • Frontonasal cephalocele (FNCeph)
                  • Nasoethmoidal cephalocele (NECeph)
                  • Nasoorbital cephalocele (NOCeph)
              • Synonyms

                • Sincipital cephalocele
              • Definitions

                • Congenital herniation of meninges, CSF ± brain tissue through mesodermal defect in anterior skull/skull base presenting as extranasal, intranasal, or medial orbital mass

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Gressot LV et al: Frontal sinus encephalocele: case report and review of literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 115(10):2174-7, 2013
                                              2. Andrews BT et al: Reconstruction of frontoethmoidal encephalocele defects. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 18(2):129-38, 2010
                                              3. Kumar A et al: Correction of frontonasoethmoidal encephalocele: the HULA procedure. Plast Reconstr Surg. 123(2):661-9, 2009
                                              4. Arshad AR et al: Frontoethmoidal encephalocele: treatment and outcome. J Craniofac Surg. 19(1):175-83, 2008
                                              5. Gollogly J et al: Frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocoele repair in Cambodia: outcomes and cost comparisons. Trop Doct. 38(3):167-70, 2008
                                              6. Holm C et al: Extracranial correction of frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles: feasibility and outcome in 52 consecutive cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 121(6):386e-395e, 2008
                                              7. Lo BW et al: Clinical predictors of developmental outcome in patients with cephaloceles. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2(4):254-7, 2008
                                              8. Hedlund G: Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 36(7):647-62; quiz 726-7, 2006
                                              9. Mahatumarat C et al: Frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele: surgical correction by the Chula technique. Plast Reconstr Surg. 111(2):556-65; discussion 566-7, 2003
                                              10. Rahbar R et al: Nasal glioma and encephalocele: diagnosis and management. Laryngoscope. 113(12):2069-77, 2003
                                              11. Rojvachiranonda N et al: Frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele: new morphological findings and a new classification. J Craniofac Surg. 14(6):847-58, 2003
                                              12. Mahapatra AK et al: Anterior encephaloceles: a study of 92 cases. Pediatr Neurosurg. 36(3):113-8, 2002
                                              13. Holmes AD et al: Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles: reconstruction and refinements. J Craniofac Surg. 12(1):6-18, 2001
                                              14. De Ponte FS et al: Surgical treatment of frontoethmoidal encephalocele: a case report. J Craniofac Surg. 11(4):342-5, 2000
                                              15. Hoving EW: Nasal encephaloceles. Childs Nerv Syst. 16(10-11):702-6, 2000
                                              16. Lowe LH et al: Midface anomalies in children. Radiographics. 20(4):907-22; quiz 1106-7, 1112, 2000
                                              17. Songur E et al: Management of frontoethmoidal (sincipital) encephalocele. J Craniofac Surg. 10(2):135-9, 1999
                                              18. Boonvisut S et al: Morphologic study of 120 skull base defects in frontoethmoidal encephalomeningoceles. Plast Reconstr Surg. 101(7):1784-95, 1998
                                              19. Fitzpatrick E et al: Congenital midline nasal masses: dermoids, gliomas, and encephaloceles. J La State Med Soc. 148(3):93-6, 1996
                                              20. Turgut M et al: Congenital nasal encephalocele: a review of 35 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 23(1):1-5, 1995
                                              21. Koch BL et al: Congenital malformations causing skull base changes. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 4(3):479-98, 1994
                                              22. Terry A et al: Orbital meningoencephalocele manifesting as a conjunctival mass. Am J Ophthalmol. 115(1):46-9, 1993
                                              23. Barkovich AJ et al: Congenital nasal masses: CT and MR imaging features in 16 cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(1):105-16, 1991
                                              24. Goldstein RB et al: Fetal cephaloceles: diagnosis with US. Radiology. 180(3):803-8, 1991
                                              25. David DJ et al: Cephaloceles: classification, pathology, and management. World J Surg. 13(4):349-57, 1989
                                              26. Lusk RP et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital midline nasal masses. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 95(3 Pt 1):303-6, 1986
                                              27. Byrd SE et al: Computed tomography in the evaluation of encephaloceles in infants and children. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2(1):81-7, 1978
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Frontoethmoidal cephalocele (FECeph)
                                                              • Frontonasal cephalocele (FNCeph)
                                                              • Nasoethmoidal cephalocele (NECeph)
                                                              • Nasoorbital cephalocele (NOCeph)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Sincipital cephalocele
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Congenital herniation of meninges, CSF ± brain tissue through mesodermal defect in anterior skull/skull base presenting as extranasal, intranasal, or medial orbital mass

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Gressot LV et al: Frontal sinus encephalocele: case report and review of literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 115(10):2174-7, 2013
                                                                                          2. Andrews BT et al: Reconstruction of frontoethmoidal encephalocele defects. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 18(2):129-38, 2010
                                                                                          3. Kumar A et al: Correction of frontonasoethmoidal encephalocele: the HULA procedure. Plast Reconstr Surg. 123(2):661-9, 2009
                                                                                          4. Arshad AR et al: Frontoethmoidal encephalocele: treatment and outcome. J Craniofac Surg. 19(1):175-83, 2008
                                                                                          5. Gollogly J et al: Frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocoele repair in Cambodia: outcomes and cost comparisons. Trop Doct. 38(3):167-70, 2008
                                                                                          6. Holm C et al: Extracranial correction of frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles: feasibility and outcome in 52 consecutive cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 121(6):386e-395e, 2008
                                                                                          7. Lo BW et al: Clinical predictors of developmental outcome in patients with cephaloceles. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2(4):254-7, 2008
                                                                                          8. Hedlund G: Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 36(7):647-62; quiz 726-7, 2006
                                                                                          9. Mahatumarat C et al: Frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele: surgical correction by the Chula technique. Plast Reconstr Surg. 111(2):556-65; discussion 566-7, 2003
                                                                                          10. Rahbar R et al: Nasal glioma and encephalocele: diagnosis and management. Laryngoscope. 113(12):2069-77, 2003
                                                                                          11. Rojvachiranonda N et al: Frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele: new morphological findings and a new classification. J Craniofac Surg. 14(6):847-58, 2003
                                                                                          12. Mahapatra AK et al: Anterior encephaloceles: a study of 92 cases. Pediatr Neurosurg. 36(3):113-8, 2002
                                                                                          13. Holmes AD et al: Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles: reconstruction and refinements. J Craniofac Surg. 12(1):6-18, 2001
                                                                                          14. De Ponte FS et al: Surgical treatment of frontoethmoidal encephalocele: a case report. J Craniofac Surg. 11(4):342-5, 2000
                                                                                          15. Hoving EW: Nasal encephaloceles. Childs Nerv Syst. 16(10-11):702-6, 2000
                                                                                          16. Lowe LH et al: Midface anomalies in children. Radiographics. 20(4):907-22; quiz 1106-7, 1112, 2000
                                                                                          17. Songur E et al: Management of frontoethmoidal (sincipital) encephalocele. J Craniofac Surg. 10(2):135-9, 1999
                                                                                          18. Boonvisut S et al: Morphologic study of 120 skull base defects in frontoethmoidal encephalomeningoceles. Plast Reconstr Surg. 101(7):1784-95, 1998
                                                                                          19. Fitzpatrick E et al: Congenital midline nasal masses: dermoids, gliomas, and encephaloceles. J La State Med Soc. 148(3):93-6, 1996
                                                                                          20. Turgut M et al: Congenital nasal encephalocele: a review of 35 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 23(1):1-5, 1995
                                                                                          21. Koch BL et al: Congenital malformations causing skull base changes. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 4(3):479-98, 1994
                                                                                          22. Terry A et al: Orbital meningoencephalocele manifesting as a conjunctival mass. Am J Ophthalmol. 115(1):46-9, 1993
                                                                                          23. Barkovich AJ et al: Congenital nasal masses: CT and MR imaging features in 16 cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(1):105-16, 1991
                                                                                          24. Goldstein RB et al: Fetal cephaloceles: diagnosis with US. Radiology. 180(3):803-8, 1991
                                                                                          25. David DJ et al: Cephaloceles: classification, pathology, and management. World J Surg. 13(4):349-57, 1989
                                                                                          26. Lusk RP et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital midline nasal masses. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 95(3 Pt 1):303-6, 1986
                                                                                          27. Byrd SE et al: Computed tomography in the evaluation of encephaloceles in infants and children. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2(1):81-7, 1978