link
Bookmarks
Functional Anatomy of Thorax and Chest Wall
Rafael Vazquez, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe

TERMINOLOGY

  • Abbreviations

    • Pectoralis major muscle (PMM)
    • Pectoralis minor muscle (PMiM)
    • Erector spinae muscle (ESM)
    • Latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM)
    • Serratus posterior inferior muscle (SPI)
    • Serratus posterior superior muscle (SPA)
    • Rhomboid (minor and major) muscle (RMM)
    • Trapezius muscle (TPM)
    • Levatores costarum muscle (LCM)
    • Innermost intercostal muscle (InIM)
    • Internal intercostal muscle (IIM)
    • External intercostal muscle (EIM)
    • Serratus anterior muscle (SAM)
  • Synonyms

    • Costal facet = demifacet
  • Definitions

    • Extends from superior thoracic aperture to inferior thoracic aperture
      • Superior thoracic aperture formed by 1st thoracic vertebral body, 1st rib, and manubrium.
      • Inferior thoracic aperture formed by costal margin anterior, distal tip of 11th and 12th ribs, and body of T12 vertebral body; it is closed off by diaphragm
    • Bones include: Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and clavicle
    • Major muscular components of anterior chest wall include: PMM and PMiM, SAM, and intercostal muscles
    • Major muscles of posterior thorax include: TPM, RMM, ESM, serratus posterior, latissimus dorsi, intercostal muscles

GROSS ANATOMY

  • Bones of Chest Wall

    • Muscles of Anterior Chest Wall

      • Muscles of Posterior Chest Wall

        Somatic Innervation of Thoracic Wall

        • Anterior Chest Wall

          • Posterior Chest Wall

            Clinical Implications

            • Analgesia of Thoracic Wall

              Selected References

              1. Mittnacht AJC et al: Regional techniques for cardiac and cardiac-related procedures. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 33(2):532-46, 2019
              2. Ourieff J et al: Anatomy, Back, Trapezius 2019
              3. Krediet AC et al: Different approaches to ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block: an illustrated review. Anesthesiology. 123(2):459-74, 2015
              4. Rea, P: Essential Clinically Applied Anatomy of the Peripheral Nervous System in the Limbs. London: Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier, 2015
              5. Bakkum BW et al: Muscles that influence the spine. In Cramer GD et al: Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences. 98-134,  2014
              6. Labronici PJ et al: Clavicle fractures - incidence of supraclavicular nerve injury. Rev Bras Ortop. 48(4):317-21, 2013
              7. Saito T et al: Analysis of the posterior ramus of the lumbar spinal nerve: the structure of the posterior ramus of the spinal nerve. Anesthesiology. 118(1):88-94, 2013
              8. Jacob, S: Human anatomy: A Clinically-Orientated Approach: An Illustrated Colour Text. Edinburgh New York: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2007
              9. Vilensky JA et al: Serratus posterior muscles: anatomy, clinical relevance, and function. Clin Anat. 14(4):237-41, 2001
              10. Bogduk N et al: The human lumbar dorsal rami. J Anat. 134(Pt 2):383-97, 1982
              11. MORRISON AB: The levatores costarum and their nerve supply. J Anat. 88(1):19-24, 1954
              12. Davies F et al: The Anatomy of the Intercostal Nerves. J Anat. 66(Pt 3):323-33, 1932
              Related Anatomy
              Loading...
              Related Differential Diagnoses
              Loading...
              References
              Tables

              Tables

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Pectoralis major muscle (PMM)
                • Pectoralis minor muscle (PMiM)
                • Erector spinae muscle (ESM)
                • Latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM)
                • Serratus posterior inferior muscle (SPI)
                • Serratus posterior superior muscle (SPA)
                • Rhomboid (minor and major) muscle (RMM)
                • Trapezius muscle (TPM)
                • Levatores costarum muscle (LCM)
                • Innermost intercostal muscle (InIM)
                • Internal intercostal muscle (IIM)
                • External intercostal muscle (EIM)
                • Serratus anterior muscle (SAM)
              • Synonyms

                • Costal facet = demifacet
              • Definitions

                • Extends from superior thoracic aperture to inferior thoracic aperture
                  • Superior thoracic aperture formed by 1st thoracic vertebral body, 1st rib, and manubrium.
                  • Inferior thoracic aperture formed by costal margin anterior, distal tip of 11th and 12th ribs, and body of T12 vertebral body; it is closed off by diaphragm
                • Bones include: Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and clavicle
                • Major muscular components of anterior chest wall include: PMM and PMiM, SAM, and intercostal muscles
                • Major muscles of posterior thorax include: TPM, RMM, ESM, serratus posterior, latissimus dorsi, intercostal muscles

              GROSS ANATOMY

              • Bones of Chest Wall

                • Muscles of Anterior Chest Wall

                  • Muscles of Posterior Chest Wall

                    Somatic Innervation of Thoracic Wall

                    • Anterior Chest Wall

                      • Posterior Chest Wall

                        Clinical Implications

                        • Analgesia of Thoracic Wall

                          Selected References

                          1. Mittnacht AJC et al: Regional techniques for cardiac and cardiac-related procedures. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 33(2):532-46, 2019
                          2. Ourieff J et al: Anatomy, Back, Trapezius 2019
                          3. Krediet AC et al: Different approaches to ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block: an illustrated review. Anesthesiology. 123(2):459-74, 2015
                          4. Rea, P: Essential Clinically Applied Anatomy of the Peripheral Nervous System in the Limbs. London: Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier, 2015
                          5. Bakkum BW et al: Muscles that influence the spine. In Cramer GD et al: Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences. 98-134,  2014
                          6. Labronici PJ et al: Clavicle fractures - incidence of supraclavicular nerve injury. Rev Bras Ortop. 48(4):317-21, 2013
                          7. Saito T et al: Analysis of the posterior ramus of the lumbar spinal nerve: the structure of the posterior ramus of the spinal nerve. Anesthesiology. 118(1):88-94, 2013
                          8. Jacob, S: Human anatomy: A Clinically-Orientated Approach: An Illustrated Colour Text. Edinburgh New York: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2007
                          9. Vilensky JA et al: Serratus posterior muscles: anatomy, clinical relevance, and function. Clin Anat. 14(4):237-41, 2001
                          10. Bogduk N et al: The human lumbar dorsal rami. J Anat. 134(Pt 2):383-97, 1982
                          11. MORRISON AB: The levatores costarum and their nerve supply. J Anat. 88(1):19-24, 1954
                          12. Davies F et al: The Anatomy of the Intercostal Nerves. J Anat. 66(Pt 3):323-33, 1932