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Fungal Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Children
Alexander J. Towbin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Associated Syndromes

          • Causes of immunocompromised states in children
            • Immature immune system: Premature infants
            • Primary immunodeficiency: Chronic granulomatous disease, Job syndrome, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome
            • Acquired immunodeficiency
              • Immunosuppression: After transplant or chemotherapy, chronic corticosteroid therapy
              • Infectious: HIV/AIDS
              • Chronic illness: Cystic fibrosis, burns

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • Microscopic Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Treatment

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Consider

                            Selected References

                            1. Pana ZD et al: Therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections in neonatal and pediatric patients: an update. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 16(5):693-710, 2015
                            2. Johnston DL et al: Invasive fungal infections in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia. Mycoses. 56(4):482-7, 2013
                            3. Steinbach WJ et al: Clinical epidemiology of 960 patients with invasive aspergillosis from the PATH Alliance registry. J Infect. 65(5):453-64, 2012
                            4. Montenegro BL et al: North American dimorphic fungal infections in children. Pediatr Rev. 31(6):e40-8, 2010
                            5. Thomas L et al: Diagnosis and treatment of aspergillosis in children. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 7(4):461-72, 2009
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Clinical Issues

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Associated Syndromes

                                    • Causes of immunocompromised states in children
                                      • Immature immune system: Premature infants
                                      • Primary immunodeficiency: Chronic granulomatous disease, Job syndrome, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome
                                      • Acquired immunodeficiency
                                        • Immunosuppression: After transplant or chemotherapy, chronic corticosteroid therapy
                                        • Infectious: HIV/AIDS
                                        • Chronic illness: Cystic fibrosis, burns

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • Microscopic Features

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Treatment

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Consider

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Pana ZD et al: Therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections in neonatal and pediatric patients: an update. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 16(5):693-710, 2015
                                                      2. Johnston DL et al: Invasive fungal infections in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia. Mycoses. 56(4):482-7, 2013
                                                      3. Steinbach WJ et al: Clinical epidemiology of 960 patients with invasive aspergillosis from the PATH Alliance registry. J Infect. 65(5):453-64, 2012
                                                      4. Montenegro BL et al: North American dimorphic fungal infections in children. Pediatr Rev. 31(6):e40-8, 2010
                                                      5. Thomas L et al: Diagnosis and treatment of aspergillosis in children. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 7(4):461-72, 2009