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Gallbladder Carcinoma
Siva P. Raman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Malignant epithelial neoplasm arising from gallbladder (GB) mucosa

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Hwang J et al: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for T-staging of gallbladder carcinoma: emphasis on liver invasion. Br J Radiol. 87(1033):20130608, 2014
                                            2. Kim SJ et al: Preoperative staging of gallbladder carcinoma using biliary MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2014
                                            3. Lee NK et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of benign from malignant lesions in the gallbladder. Clin Radiol. 69(2):e78-85, 2014
                                            4. Mitchell CH et al: Features suggestive of gallbladder malignancy: analysis of T1, T2, and T3 tumors on cross-sectional imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 38(2):235-41, 2014
                                            5. Ramos-Font C et al: Ability of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of gallbladder cancer. J Surg Oncol. 109(3):218-24, 2014
                                            6. Revzin MV et al: The gallbladder: uncommon gallbladder conditions and unusual presentations of the common gallbladder pathological processes. Abdom Imaging. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                            7. Wernberg JA et al: Gallbladder cancer. Surg Clin North Am. 94(2):343-60, 2014
                                            8. Tan CH et al: MRI of gallbladder cancer. Diagn Interv Radiol. 19(4):312-9, 2013
                                            9. Yoshimitsu K et al: Magnetic resonance differentiation between T2 and T1 gallbladder carcinoma: significance of subserosal enhancement on the delayed phase dynamic study. Magn Reson Imaging. 30(6):854-9, 2012
                                            10. Randi G et al: Epidemiology of biliary tract cancers: an update. Ann Oncol. 20(1):146-59, 2009
                                            11. Catalano OA et al: MR imaging of the gallbladder: a pictorial essay. Radiographics. 28(1):135-55; quiz 324, 2008
                                            12. Furlan A et al: Gallbladder carcinoma update: multimodality imaging evaluation, staging, and treatment options. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(5):1440-7, 2008
                                            13. Sainani NI et al: Cholangiocarcinoma: current and novel imaging techniques. Radiographics. 28(5):1263-87, 2008
                                            14. Enomoto T et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking stage IV gallbladder cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 50(53):1255-8, 2003
                                            15. Goindi G et al: Risk factors in the aetiopathogenesis of carcinoma of the gallbladder. Trop Gastroenterol. 24(2):63-5, 2003
                                            16. Kokudo N et al: Strategies for surgical treatment of gallbladder carcinoma based on information available before resection. Arch Surg. 138(7):741-50; dis 750, 2003
                                            17. Misra S et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder. Lancet Oncol. 4(3):167-76, 2003
                                            18. Pandey M: Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a reappraisal. Eur J Cancer Prev. 12(1):15-24, 2003
                                            19. Yamamoto T et al: Early gallbladder carcinoma associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. J Gastroenterol. 38(7):704-6, 2003
                                            20. Yun EJ et al: Gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis: differentiation with two-phase spiral CT. Abdom Imaging. 29(1):102-8, 2003
                                            21. Corvera CU et al: Role of laparoscopy in the evaluation of biliary tract cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 11(4):877-91, 2002
                                            22. Cunningham CC et al: Primary carcinoma of the gall bladder: a review of our experience. J La State Med Soc. 154(4):196-9, 2002
                                            23. Doty JR et al: Cholecystectomy, liver resection, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for gallbladder cancer: report of five cases. J Gastrointest Surg. 6(5):776-80, 2002
                                            24. Gore RM et al: Imaging benign and malignant disease of the gallbladder. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(6):1307-23, vi, 2002
                                            25. Rashid A: Cellular and molecular biology of biliary tract cancers. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 11(4):995-1009, 2002
                                            26. Varshney S et al: Incidental carcinoma of the gallbladder. Eur J Surg Oncol. 28(1):4-10, 2002
                                            27. Xu AM et al: Multi-slice three-dimensional spiral CT cholangiography: a new technique for diagnosis of biliary diseases. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 1(4):595-603, 2002
                                            28. Dixit VK et al: Aetiopathogenesis of carcinoma gallbladder. Trop Gastroenterol. 22(2):103-6, 2001
                                            29. Donohue JH: Present status of the diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 8(6):530-4, 2001
                                            30. Eriguchi N et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Kurume Med J. 48(3):219-21, 2001
                                            31. Fujii H et al: Small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: a case report and review of 53 cases in the literature. Hepatogastroenterology. 48(42):1588-93, 2001
                                            32. Kaushik SP: Current perspectives in gallbladder carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 16(8):848-54, 2001
                                            33. Levy AD et al: Gallbladder carcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 21(2):295-314; questionnaire, 549-55, 2001
                                            34. Pandey M et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder: a retrospective review of 99 cases. Dig Dis Sci. 46(6):1145-51, 2001
                                            35. Stewart CJ et al: Brush cytology in the assessment of pancreatico-biliary strictures: a review of 406 cases. J Clin Pathol. 54(6):449-55, 2001
                                            36. Tazuma S et al: Carcinogenesis of malignant lesions of the gall bladder. The impact of chronic inflammation and gallstones. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 386(3):224-9, 2001
                                            37. Towfigh S et al: Porcelain gallbladder is not associated with gallbladder carcinoma. Am Surg. 67(1):7-10, 2001
                                            38. Narula IM: Historical review of carcinoma of the gallbladder. Indian J Hist Med. 16:6-11, 1971
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Malignant epithelial neoplasm arising from gallbladder (GB) mucosa

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Hwang J et al: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for T-staging of gallbladder carcinoma: emphasis on liver invasion. Br J Radiol. 87(1033):20130608, 2014
                                                                                      2. Kim SJ et al: Preoperative staging of gallbladder carcinoma using biliary MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2014
                                                                                      3. Lee NK et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of benign from malignant lesions in the gallbladder. Clin Radiol. 69(2):e78-85, 2014
                                                                                      4. Mitchell CH et al: Features suggestive of gallbladder malignancy: analysis of T1, T2, and T3 tumors on cross-sectional imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 38(2):235-41, 2014
                                                                                      5. Ramos-Font C et al: Ability of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of gallbladder cancer. J Surg Oncol. 109(3):218-24, 2014
                                                                                      6. Revzin MV et al: The gallbladder: uncommon gallbladder conditions and unusual presentations of the common gallbladder pathological processes. Abdom Imaging. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                                                                      7. Wernberg JA et al: Gallbladder cancer. Surg Clin North Am. 94(2):343-60, 2014
                                                                                      8. Tan CH et al: MRI of gallbladder cancer. Diagn Interv Radiol. 19(4):312-9, 2013
                                                                                      9. Yoshimitsu K et al: Magnetic resonance differentiation between T2 and T1 gallbladder carcinoma: significance of subserosal enhancement on the delayed phase dynamic study. Magn Reson Imaging. 30(6):854-9, 2012
                                                                                      10. Randi G et al: Epidemiology of biliary tract cancers: an update. Ann Oncol. 20(1):146-59, 2009
                                                                                      11. Catalano OA et al: MR imaging of the gallbladder: a pictorial essay. Radiographics. 28(1):135-55; quiz 324, 2008
                                                                                      12. Furlan A et al: Gallbladder carcinoma update: multimodality imaging evaluation, staging, and treatment options. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(5):1440-7, 2008
                                                                                      13. Sainani NI et al: Cholangiocarcinoma: current and novel imaging techniques. Radiographics. 28(5):1263-87, 2008
                                                                                      14. Enomoto T et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking stage IV gallbladder cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 50(53):1255-8, 2003
                                                                                      15. Goindi G et al: Risk factors in the aetiopathogenesis of carcinoma of the gallbladder. Trop Gastroenterol. 24(2):63-5, 2003
                                                                                      16. Kokudo N et al: Strategies for surgical treatment of gallbladder carcinoma based on information available before resection. Arch Surg. 138(7):741-50; dis 750, 2003
                                                                                      17. Misra S et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder. Lancet Oncol. 4(3):167-76, 2003
                                                                                      18. Pandey M: Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a reappraisal. Eur J Cancer Prev. 12(1):15-24, 2003
                                                                                      19. Yamamoto T et al: Early gallbladder carcinoma associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. J Gastroenterol. 38(7):704-6, 2003
                                                                                      20. Yun EJ et al: Gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis: differentiation with two-phase spiral CT. Abdom Imaging. 29(1):102-8, 2003
                                                                                      21. Corvera CU et al: Role of laparoscopy in the evaluation of biliary tract cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 11(4):877-91, 2002
                                                                                      22. Cunningham CC et al: Primary carcinoma of the gall bladder: a review of our experience. J La State Med Soc. 154(4):196-9, 2002
                                                                                      23. Doty JR et al: Cholecystectomy, liver resection, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for gallbladder cancer: report of five cases. J Gastrointest Surg. 6(5):776-80, 2002
                                                                                      24. Gore RM et al: Imaging benign and malignant disease of the gallbladder. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(6):1307-23, vi, 2002
                                                                                      25. Rashid A: Cellular and molecular biology of biliary tract cancers. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 11(4):995-1009, 2002
                                                                                      26. Varshney S et al: Incidental carcinoma of the gallbladder. Eur J Surg Oncol. 28(1):4-10, 2002
                                                                                      27. Xu AM et al: Multi-slice three-dimensional spiral CT cholangiography: a new technique for diagnosis of biliary diseases. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 1(4):595-603, 2002
                                                                                      28. Dixit VK et al: Aetiopathogenesis of carcinoma gallbladder. Trop Gastroenterol. 22(2):103-6, 2001
                                                                                      29. Donohue JH: Present status of the diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 8(6):530-4, 2001
                                                                                      30. Eriguchi N et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Kurume Med J. 48(3):219-21, 2001
                                                                                      31. Fujii H et al: Small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: a case report and review of 53 cases in the literature. Hepatogastroenterology. 48(42):1588-93, 2001
                                                                                      32. Kaushik SP: Current perspectives in gallbladder carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 16(8):848-54, 2001
                                                                                      33. Levy AD et al: Gallbladder carcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 21(2):295-314; questionnaire, 549-55, 2001
                                                                                      34. Pandey M et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder: a retrospective review of 99 cases. Dig Dis Sci. 46(6):1145-51, 2001
                                                                                      35. Stewart CJ et al: Brush cytology in the assessment of pancreatico-biliary strictures: a review of 406 cases. J Clin Pathol. 54(6):449-55, 2001
                                                                                      36. Tazuma S et al: Carcinogenesis of malignant lesions of the gall bladder. The impact of chronic inflammation and gallstones. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 386(3):224-9, 2001
                                                                                      37. Towfigh S et al: Porcelain gallbladder is not associated with gallbladder carcinoma. Am Surg. 67(1):7-10, 2001
                                                                                      38. Narula IM: Historical review of carcinoma of the gallbladder. Indian J Hist Med. 16:6-11, 1971